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The Body Systems

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Nitya Chivukula

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of The Body Systems

by: Nitya Chivukula and Roop Panesar Body Systems Skeletal System Reproductive System Urinary System Lymphatic System What is it?? Well, this system is home to the biggest organ which is the skin. This big organ holds the size of 22 square feet and 10 to 11 pounds in adults. The skin has hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and muscles which all amount to keep the body going. Functions: -It serves as a good protector of the internal body system and also acts as the first barrier for bacteria. -

-It also prevents dehydration and other protein loss while also storing fat and making vitamins and minerals.

-The skin maintains the body's homeostasis by helping to regulate the body's temperature in the form of sweating etc, and it helps maintain the body's water balance. It also protects you from harmful ultraviolet rays.

-The skin also can detect heat, cold, pressure, touch and very importantly, pain. Diseases Bibliography Acne - Increased levels of androgens (male hormones) cause the sebaceous glands to release an massive amount of an oily substance called sebum into hair follicles. The extra sebum combines with dead skin cells to create a barrier that blocks the follicle. Bacteria common on the skin, goes into this follicle. Weakened, the follicle bursts , secreting the sebum, bacteria, skin cells, and white blood cells onto the skin which results in the formation of pimples.

Skin Cancer- When the skin cells start reproducing excessively. They then start taking over/destroying the other cells and form bulges or sacs of excess skin. A big factor in this is the overexposure to ultraviolet rays. Video http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x4mt1u_zoom-into-human-skin_tech#.UQC0fx2Zl8E http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/ss/integumentary_system.htm









http://www.jonbarron.org/article/diseases-respiratory-system Digestive System Cardiovascular System Respiratory System Endocrine System Nervous System Video Video Video Video Video The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and approximately 5 liters of blood that blood vessels transport. It is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, and is powered by the heart. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 liters of blood throughout the body every minute. The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The female and male urinary system are very similar, differing only in the length of the urethra. The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system. It is made up of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph capillaries, and lymph vessels that make and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. What is it? Functions: The three main functions are to:
-Remove excess fluid from bodily tissues
-Absorb fatty acids and subsequently transport fat as chyle to the circulatory system
-Produce immune cells such as lymphocytes and monocytes

As the lymph fluid moves through the body, it collects waste products and toxins and disposes of them through the bladder, bowel, lungs, and skin. The lymphatic system is vital for both detoxification and the immune system, and if it is not working properly, then many different illnesses can develop. Diseases: Lymphedema is swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid, which may occur if the lymphatic system is damaged or has malformations. It usually affects the limbs.
Lymphangiomatosis is a disease involving multiple cysts or lesions formed from lymphatic vessels.
In elephantiasis, infection of the lymphatic vessels cause a thickening of the skin and enlargement of underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis.
Lymphangiosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor, whereas lymphangioma is a benign tumor occurring frequently in association with Turner syndrome. What is it?? This system hold all the muscles in your body, which amounts to over 700!

There are three types of muscles:

1) Cardiac muscle-which is found in the heart

2) Visceral Muscle-which is found inside organs, such as the stomach

3) Skeletal Muscle- it is the only voluntary muscle in your body, so it can only be moved by you wanting too, like moving your hands Functions: Visceral Muscle: These muscles are the weakest out of all the three. They wrok by contracting to allow substances to pass through the organs. Some examples are blood vessels and the intestines. This muscle is controlled by the unconcious part of the brain, which means these actions happen without your control.

Cardiac Muscle: This muscle is responsible for pumping blood through the body therefore they only reside in the heart. These muscle are also involuntary. They are self-stimulated as in they are controlled by hormones sent from the brain.

Skeletal Muscle: The function of skeletal muscle is to contract to move parts of the body so that they are closer to the bone in which this muslce is on. Most of these muscles are attached to two bones through tendons, so then the muscle functions to move parts of those bones closer to each other. This muscle is in voluntary and is responsible to move parts of the body at your command, (controlled by motor neurons). Diseases: Myotonia: When muscles relax slowly after contraction, leading to problems in releasing grip, walking, getting up after sleeping etc.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Motor neurons are destroyed leading to the loss of control over voluntary movement or skeletal muscles. Paralysis is the advanced symptom of this disease.

Rhabdomyolysis: In this disease there is a rapid skeletal muscle destruction. This leads to the muscle fibers to break down into myoglobin which is released into urine. Kidney failure can result from this due to the myoglobin in the urine. Other symptoms include muscle weakness, stiffness, and pain. Video What is it?? Neuron: This is the basic unit of this system. It is a specialized cell that recieves and transmits electirical or chemical impules, THAT IS THE ONLY MESSAGES THE BRAIN UNDERSTANDS. Functions: The Brain: Recieves and stores impulses from the neuron.
The Spinal Cord: Composed of 31 segements and carries the 'messages' from the brain to the rest of the body.
Somatic Nervous System: Controls voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System: Controls the regulated action of the internal organs and glands.
Sympathetic: Part of the AOS and it arouses your internal body. Quickens heart rate etc.
Parasympathetic: Part of the AOS and it calms the internal body. Diseases: Multiple Schlerosis: When the myelin sheath around the axons degenerate, causing slower message relaying. Symptoms include: involuntary movements, shaky movements, etc.

Parkinson's Disease: Caused by deficiency of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter. Results in tremors.

Alzheimer's Disease: Results in memory loss. (Occurs due to low levels of ACH another neurotransmitter.) Video http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/science/health-human-body-sci/human-body/brain-tumor-sci/ What is it??? It is the system in charge of your body's hormones. Hormones are the chemical substances produced in your body that regulate the activity of cells and organs. This system is made up of the hypothalamus, the pituitary glands, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, the pineal body, the reproductive system and pancreas. Functions: Hypothalamus: Is in charge of regulating the happiness, metabolism, and the body temperature, which is does by releasing specific hormones. On top of that is controls the pituitary gland also by the release of hormones.
Pituitary Gland: It releases hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands and is therefore thought of as the most important gland.
Thyriod Gland: Regulates the body's metabolism, bone growth, and helps develop the brain and nervous system.
Parathyroid Glands: Plays a role in regulating the calcium level in blood and bone metabolism.
Adrenal Glands: Has two parts. The outer part produces hormones that control body's metabolism, balance of salt and water in the body, immune system, and sexual function. The outer part releases hormones that help the body deal with physical and emotional stress by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
Pineal Body: Releases hormones that regulate the wake and sleep schedueles of the body, also know as the circadium clock.
Reproductive GLands: Release hormones that deal with puberty, etc.
Pancreas: Releases hormones named insulin and glucagon which regulate the level of glucose or sugar in the blood. Diseases: Diabetes: Body cannot produce enough insulin to break down the sugars in the body.

Osteoporosis: When the bones become fragile and weak.

Growth Disorders: Occurs when the growth hormones are not released properly. Video: What is it?? This is the body system that makes breathing possible. It delivers fresh oxygen to your body and takes out the carbon dioxide. Functions:
Nostrils: They are involved in the air intake. Inside, the air is warmed and humidified. The cilia then filters out any dust or particles in the air.
Trachea: Known as the windpipe, it filers the air and hooks into the bronchi.
Bronchi: They are two air tubes that carry the air directly into the lungs.
Lungs: They are the main organs of the system. They basically take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. The red blood cells help with the exchange.
Alveolus: They are tiny sacs in the lungs in which this exchange takes place.
Diaphram: The muscle that allows us to breathe. Diseases: Asthma: Results in having trouble breathing due to the bronchial tubes becomes swollen and irritated due to allergens.

COPD (emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis) : Disease caused by long-term irritation to the lungs which makes it hard to breathe. The airflow restriction is progressive and linked with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to particles or gases, (such a cigaretter smoke). Video: Integumentary System Muscular System The skeletal system is made up of all of the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is an organ made up of many cells, protein fibers, and minerals. The skeleton provides support and protection for the soft tissues that make up the rest of the body. The skeletal system also provides attachment points for muscles to allow movements at the joints. The skeleton grows throughout childhood and provides a framework for the rest of the body to grow along with it. What is it? Video Functions: Diseases: What is it? Functions: Diseases: The skeletal system supports the body, protects the organs, helps with muscle attachment, levers movement, issues blood cell formation, and is where minerals are stored. Arthritis is an inflammatory condition that affects the joints. Typical symptoms include joint pain, swelling and stiffness accompanied by a reduction in the ability to freely move the joints.
Bone cancer is cancer that originates within a bone of the body causing bones to weaken. People with bone cancer experience fatigue, bone pain, or frequent bone fractures. Bone cancer most frequently occurs in longer bones, such as the legs or arms.
Osteoporosis is when bones become brittle and weak due to the extensive loss of bone tissue. It commonly results in bone fractures of the wrist, spine or hip, which can even be caused by mild stresses such as coughing.
Spina bifida is a genetic birth defect that effects the development of the spinal cord while a baby is in the uterus. This defect is usually detected and treated before a baby is born. However, babies that are not treated before birth may be born with excess fluid in/around the brain. What is it? Functions: The three main functions of the cariovascular system are:
1) Transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes

2) Protection of the body by white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins (also, clotting mechanisms protect the body from blood loss after injuries)

3) Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of cells Diseases: Arrhythmia refers to irregular heartbeat or heart rhythm, where the heart can beat too fast or slow. This is a result of abnormal electrical activity in the heart, which can be caused by congenital heart disease, stress or anxiety, hyper and hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, antidepressant medications, alcohol and smoking.
Myocardial infarction is more commonly known as heart attack. It is caused by an interruption in the supply of blood to the heart due to blockage in the coronary artery. The result is the death of certain heart muscles or cells of the affected part of the heart.
Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries due to formation of plaque, caused by the deposition of fats and cholesterol. Such deposition causes the arteries to lose their elasticity, as the arterial wall thickens. It also makes the arteries narrow, thus impairing the normal blood circulation. What is it? 1) Storage of Urine: The urinary bladder is an expandable sac that stores as much as 1 liter of urine.
2) Excretion of urine: Urethra spinage transports the urine from the bladder and expels it outside of the body.
3) Regulation of blood volume: Kidneys control the interstitial fluid and blood under direction of certain hormones produced in your body. Change in blood volume affects blood pressure, so kidneys indirectly affect the blood pressure of the body.
4) Regulation of erythrocyte production: As kidneys filter blood they are also measuring the oxygen level of the blood. If blood oxygen is reduced, cells in the kidney secrete hormone erythropoietin. Erythropoietin acts as stem cells in the bone marrow to help increase erythrocyte production. Functions: Diseases: A kidney stone is an aggregation that sometimes forms in one or both kidneys of a person. These solid lumps are typically classified based on their location in the kidney, ureter and bladder and also by their chemical composition. This urinary system disease most commonly affects men.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder condition. It can cause bladder scarring, and can make the bladder less elastic. This often means the bladder won't hold as much urine.
Bladder cancer's symptoms are often similar to those of a UTI. Bladder cancer can cause back or pelvic pain, pain during urination, and urinary frequency and urgency. It may also cause blood to appear in the urine. Recovery from bladder cancer depends largely on the size of the tumor, and the stage at which it is diagnosed. What is it? The digestive system consists of organs that break down food into components that your body uses for energy and for building and repairing cells and tissues. Functions: The five functions of the digestive system are:
1) Break up food into smaller pieces
2) Transporting food the the GI tract
3) Secreting digestive enzymes
4) Absorbing nutrients into the blood
5) Excreting solid waste products Diseases: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disease in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus. This action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products from the blood into body tissues. It may result from excessive breakdown of red blood cells.
Esophageal varices is the bulging of veins in the walls of the esophagus. They are often a complication of chronic alcoholism. The thin-walled, swollen veins are at risk of tearing resulting in severe bleeding.








http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html It is a system that holds the body's sex organs. The sex organs of each gender come together to....REPRODUCE and create offspring. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The female reproductive system consists of the ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus and vagina. It produces female hormones and is responsible to produce and sustain the ova or eggs, transport the eggs to the Fallopian tube for fertilization with the sperm, and then transport the fertilized ova to a nurturing environment in the uterus for the fetus to develop.
The male reproductive system consists of the testes, duct system, scrotum and penis. These organs are responsible for production, maintenance and transportation of the sperm and seminal fluid. The testes produce and store millions of sperm cells for the fertilization of the ova. Cervical cancer is usually cause by the sexually transmitted organism HPV. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects the womb to the vagina.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes infertility in both men and women. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and does not create symptoms in all who become infected.
Endometriosis occurs when tissues resembling the lining of the uterus are found in other places of the body. Because these tissues should only be located in the uterus, endometriosis sufferers experience intense pelvic pain, and they may not be able to conceive children.
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