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Journey through Deaf Culture

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Nor'Quera Townsend

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Journey through Deaf Culture

Journey Through Deaf Culture
True & False
Journey through Time
Journey into the world of Child Abuse
Journey into the worlf of deaf women
This book put microscope to the lives of deaf women, through a series of interviews.
"Deaf people can do anything hearing people can do"
-King Jordan

It is appropriate to use hearing idioms when communicating with either deaf or hearing impaired individuals?
Hearing disability, Hard of hearing and deaf are the same.
Never look a person with hearing loss In the eyes when communicating with them.
When trying to pass in between two deaf individuals that are communicating it is okay to just walk right through them
Try to avoid the use of dramatic facial expressions and or body language when communicating using ASL
When visiting a deaf persons house it is okay to just walk in because they can not hear the doorbell
If a deaf person is signing and they make a mistake it is okay to correct them.
It is okay to ask about a persons hearing loss.
Make sure to let a deaf person know that you are hearing and learning to sign when communicating with them.
All deaf people use ASL
All deaf people write and read
“Hearing impaired” is an acceptable term
What does it mean to be deaf?
to partially or wholly lack the sense or ability to hear; unable to hear
322 B.C
Ancient Greeks Deny Deaf Education
The philosopher Aristotle claims that "Deaf people could not be educated [since] without hearing, people could not learn."
Development of Deaf education
Physician Geronimo Cardano of Padua, Italy, attempts to teach his deaf son using a code of symbols.
Pedro Ponce de Leon, a Benedictine monk, successfully teaches speech to people deaf since birth.
345-550 A.D
Christians see deafness as a sin
St. Augustine tells early Christians that deaf children are a sign of God's anger at the sins of their parents.
Benedictine monks take vows of silence to better honor God.
They develop their own form of sign language
First book of alphabetic signs written for he deaf by Juan Pablo Bonet
French sign language is established
A French priest, Charles Michel De L'Eppe, establishes the first free public school for the deaf in France.
De L'Eppe tries to develop a bridge between the deaf and hearing worlds through a system of standardized signs and finger spelling.
345-550 A.D
Charles Michel De L’Eppe publishes a dictionary of French sign language.
322 B.C
First American School for the Deaf Founded
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, an American interested in deaf education, travels to Europe where he meets the Archbishop Roche Sicard, the author of "Theory of Signs,” and successor to De L’Eppe
Sicard sends one of his instructors, Laurent Clerc, and the pair found the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut
Pennsylvania School for the Deaf is founded.
The New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb is founded.
Kentucky School for the Deaf, the first school supported by the state, opens
In St. Louis, Missouri, St. Joseph's the first Catholic school for the deaf, opens.
The Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind opens. It is the first school to integrate deaf and blind students.
The National Deaf Mute College is renamed as Gallaudet College in honor of Thomas H. Gallaudet, it’s first President.
William Howard Taft overturns Roosevelt's earlier decision to prohibit deaf people from taking civil service exams for federal jobs.
Baseballs American League gets first grand slam thanks to William “Dummy” Hoy, a deaf player .
Lead to development of umpire hand signals
First Electric Hearing Aid (radio aid) developed.
Ida Wynette Gray Hampton is the first African- American woman to graduate from Gallaudet College.
President Dwight Eisenhower signs PL 85-905 establishing Captioned films for the Deaf.
Stokoe publishes his findings about sign language as a legitimate language.
Pilgrim Imagining starts open captioning in the Caption Films for the Deaf Program, under U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare.
Robin Michelson and colleague Melvin Bartz construct a cochlear device with biocompatible materials that can be implanted in human patients. This system is implanted in 4 patients, and the report of hearing results.
American Annals of the Deaf first proposes the idea of higher education for the Deaf.
Gallaudet College Opens & President Lincoln signs Enabling Act
Abraham Lincoln signs the charter for the Washington, D.C.- based college for the deaf. Originally known as the National College for the Deaf and Dumb, it is the only accredited facility for the Deaf in the United States to offer college degrees.
A Deaf State Is Proposed
John Flournoy, proposes to Congress that land be set aside in the western territories for the creation of a deaf state, where deaf people could better enjoy their own community and flourish unrestrained by prejudice and the restrictive good intentions of hearing society.
Lexington School opens NYC
Lexington School becomes the first pure oral school in the country. Clarke school soon follows in Northhampton, MA.
The Conference of Milan Endorses Oral Education
In a move with repercussions well into the future, this international gathering of deaf educators pronounces oral education methods superior to manual communications systems. The American Delegation expresses the only opposition to the vote. Manual education had made great strides in the United States at that time.
The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) is founded and gains support in reaction to the Milan resolution.
Electrical Hearing Aid Invented. While early hearing aids are not easy to use (most weigh several pounds and must be placed on a desk), the carbon-based microphones, powered by large three-and six-volt batteries, give hearing-impaired people truly amplified sound for the first time
The NAD is the nation's premier civil rights organization of, by and for deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the United States of America.
Established 1880
shaped by deaf leaders who believed in the right of the American deaf community to use sign language, to congregate on issues important to them, and to have its interests represented at the national level. On the international front, the NAD represents the United States of America to the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD), an international human rights organization.
Phone for deaf invented
National Technical Institute for the Deaf established.
NTID is first technological college for deaf students in the world
TTY invented by Robert Weitbrecht
The National Theater of the Deaf is Established

Cued Speech invented by R. Orin Cornett at Gallaudet
Disabled Gain Right to Equal Access
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 includes a section requiring federally funded organizations to provide TTY phones and interpreters for the Deaf.
On November 29th President Ford signs PL 94-142 into law. The law guarantees each disabled child to receive a free, appropriate public education
Cochlear Implants Approved
The cochlear implant is approved for clinical trials in people 18 and older. The device is a mechanical prosthesis of sorts for the inner ear. It bypasses the bones of the inner ear, placing electrodes directly into the cochlea, where sound waves are absorbed and interpreted by the auditory nerve
Deaf Mosaic Premieres

Telephone typewriter
Created by Robert Weitbrecht
First worldwide radio communication
electronic device for text communication via a telephone line, used when one or more of the parties has hearing or speech difficulties.
National Technical Institute or the Deaf
Formally established in 1965 through an Act of Congress (PL89-36)
First and largest technological college in the world for students who are deaf or hard of hearing
One of nine colleges
Admitted first students in 1968
What is NTID?
Internal and external component
Internal component is surgically inserted under skin behind the ear and a narrow wire is threaded into inner ear.
External component (which resembles behind the ear hearing aid) is connected to the internal one through the skin via an external magnetic disk.
Incoming sounds converted to electrical currents and directed to contact points in wire.
Directly stimulate auditory nerve

Cochlear Implants
Gallaudet becomes a university
Deaf President Now' Protest Held
Students and faculty at Gallaudet University protest the selection of another hearing president.
Lasted 8 days
King Jordan is named first deaf president of Gallaudet University
Deaf Actress Wins Oscar
Marlee Matlin becomes the first deaf actress to win an Academy Award, for her role in the movie "Children of a Lesser God.“
NTID hosts the first National Deaf Poetry Conference.
Americans with Disabilities Act passed
Discriminatory practices and obstacles to accessibility for the handicapped are both outlawed. The law has a huge impact on the wheel chair dependent, and also requires greater communications, education, and employment opportunities for the Deaf.
Delta Sigma Phi (First deaf fraternity) founded at Gallaudet
The FCC requires that all newly manufactured televisions have the caption decoding chip. 
First Deaf Miss America Crowned
Heather Whitestone, an orally educated deaf woman from Birmingham, Alabama, wins the coveted crown. She states, "[Speech] worked for me, but it does not work for all deaf children
Deaf Jam, a documentary film championing American Sign Language Poetry, begins production.
The British Government recognizes British Sign Language as a bona-fide language.
More than 20% higher and more common among deaf and hard of hearing children than of hearing children.
50% sexually abused
46.1% physically abused
26% neglected
Deaf children are more susceptible to child abuse than hearing children due to the communication barrier between them and the professionals who are suppose to help them.
Most of the abuse occurs at home
Most deaf children reside with their families
Hearing parents of deaf children are more likely to abuse than deaf parents of hearing children.

Parents Journey through Grief

What is the Americans with Disabilities Act?
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities that are like those provided to individuals on the basis of race, sex, national origin, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications.
* Employers may not discriminate against a qualified applicant or employee because of the known disability of an individual with whom the applicant or employee is known to have a relationship or association.
* Public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, doctors' offices, pharmacies, retail stores, museums, libraries, parks, private schools, and day care centers, may not discriminate on the basis of disability, effective January 26, 1992. Private clubs and religious organizations are exempt.
* State or local governments may not discriminate against qualified individuals with disabilities. All government facilities, services, and communications must be accessible consistent with the requirements of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
* Companies offering telephone service to the general public must offer telephone relay services to individuals who use telecommunications devices for the deaf (TDD's) or similar devices.
Big "D" deaf
Little "d" deaf
Two types of deaf
Cultural Perspective
Language is asl
Accepts Deaf history
social norms
infused in deaf culture
medical/ audiological
Comic Pit-Stop
FOod for the journey
"Deaf Culture cookies"

Members of the deaf culture communicate via sign language (ASL)
Members have a positive attitude toward being deaf
View deafness as a difference in human experience rather than a disability
Strongly oppose discrimination against deaf people
Deaf culture in the U.S is collectivist rather than individualist; culturally deaf people the group
Deaf culture describes the social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities affected by deafness
Position interpreter between the two of you and avoid walking in between interpreter and deaf person
Avoid terms such as "tell him/her" and "this/That"
When using an interpreter speak at a natural pace
Things we'll need for the trip
Remember that interpreters are present to facilitate communication
(interpreter quick notes)
ASL (American Sign Language) is a complete, unique language developed by deaf people, for deaf people and is used in its purest form by people who are Deaf. Being its own language, it not only has its own vocabulary, but also its own grammar that differs from English.
Signed Exact English is a system to communicate in English through signs and fingerspelling. Signed Exact English, in most cases, uses English grammar (that is, you are signing English). The vocabulary is a combination of ASL signs, modified ASL signs, or unique English signs.
Cued Speech
Total Communication Method
Other Communication Methods
What causes deafness?
More than half of all deafness or hearing impairment is believed to have genetic cause.
90% of infants who are born deaf are born to hearing parents.
1 in every 1,000 infants is born deaf.
1 in every 1,000 infants has a hearing impairment significant enough to make speaking difficult.
Name that famous person

Paddy Ladd coined the word
"Deafhood". He wrote the book
called "Understanding Deaf
Culture - In Search of Deafhood"
Paddy Ladd coined the word "Deafhood". He wrote the book called "Understanding Deaf Culture- In Search of Deafhood"
Albert Newsam is a famous Deaf artist who designed the Gallaudet Monument
Jean Baptist Massieu was one of the pioneer deaf teachers. He was born deaf and came from a deaf family. He taught at the institution Nationale des sourdsmuets de Paris where Laurent Clerc was one of his students. His famous quote was "Gratitude is the memory of the heart"
Agatha Tiegel Hanson was the first
Deaf woman to graduate from
Gallaudet College with a four year
degree. At the graduation
commencement in 1893, she was
a Valedictorian. She delivered her
address, "The Intellect of Women",
a very powerful presentation.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet went on the ship named Mary-Augusta on the 18th of June
1816 with Laurent Clerc, on a
journey to America.
George Veditz who did a film on
Preservation of Sign Language
presentation from the NAD Motion
Picture Project. His 1913 film has
been selected for the Library of
Congress 2010 National Film
Juan Pablo Martin Bonet
from Spain 1620. Bonet was the
first to publish a sign language
book for the Deaf. The Deaf
students were taught to read,
write, and use the one-handed
manual alphabet system.
Abbe Charles de L’Epee was a French pioneer teacher for the Deaf. He opened the first public school for the Deaf in France and the school was
called the , “Institution Nationale
des sourds-muets de Paris."
Tom Humphries coined the word "Audism"
Edward Miner Gallaudet is the
son of Thomas Hopkins
Gallaudet. Edward Miner
became the first President
of Gallaudet University
in 1865.
William Stokoe said American
Sign Language is a language.
He was the founder of the
linguistic study of the sign
languages of the Deaf.
"Deaf Hollywood Tour"
What is NAD?
Laurent Clerc was 28 when leaving
France for America on the Mary
Augusta ship with Thomas Hopkins
Gallaudet on June 18, 1816 and
arriving in Hartford, Connecticut
on August 22, 1816.
The Oral Method of communication utilizes speechreading (lipreading) and the maximal use of a child’s residual hearing for the development and production of speech. The premise behind this method is that a child who is deaf or hard of hearing will then be able to communicate more effectively with hearing individuals.
Cued Speech facilitates lipreading by having the speaker simultaneously use hand gestures while speaking to help the listener visually distinguish between similar looking sounds on the speaker’s lips.
The philosophical basis for Total Communication (TC) is for a child who is deaf or hard of hearing to use any and all communication methods necessary to facilitate language acquisition. This system, which typically uses signs in English word order, may include: speech, fingerspelling, manual signs, gestures, speechreading, cued speech and augmentation of residual hearing. Basically, this mode of communication may utilize any combination of the communication options listed above.
The difference between ASL and English signs | Signing Savvy Blog | ASL Sign Language Video Dictionary. (n.d.). Signing Savvy Blog. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.signingsavvy.com/blog/45/The+difference+between+ASL+and+English+signs

The Origin of Hearing Aid Manufacturing in Minneapolis/St. Paul. (n.d.). Waynes World Wayne Staab History and current events in hearing loss hearing aids research The Reel Foto. (n.d.). : Jill Greenberg: Cry Baby. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://reelfoto.blogspot.com/2012/09/jill-greenberg-cry-baby.html

Tips for Using Sign Language Interpreters. (n.d.). Eaton Interpreting Services RSS. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://eatoninterpreting.com/resources/tips-for-using-sign-language-interpreters/

TTY or TDD: The Text Telephone - e-Michigan Deaf and Hard of Hearing. (n.d.). TTY or TDD: The Text Telephone - e-Michigan Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.michdhh.org/assistive_devices/text_telephone.html.

Universities around the World. (n.d.). : 12-The Gallaudet University. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.universityaround.info/2013/03/12-gallaudet-university.html

150 Years of Visionary Leadership - A Historical Timeline - Gallaudet University. (n.d.). 150 Years of Visionary Leadership - A Historical Timeline - Gallaudet University. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.gallaudet.edu/a_historical_timeline.html

HearingHealthMattersorgWaynesWorld. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://hearinghealthmatters.org/waynesworld/2011/the-origin-of-hearing-aid-manufacturing-in-minneapolisst-paul/

(n.d.). PBS. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/culture/dhpop/popup22.html

OLD VERSION "It Shouldn't Hurt to Be a Child" CHILD ABUSE AWARENESS Original Song. (2012, May 2). YouTube. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from

Parenting Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children - Stages of Acceptance of Deafness. (n.d.). About.com Deafness. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://deafness.about.com/cs/parentingarticles/a/stages.htm

Photo Special Rehabbed Stars: How Betty Ford Helped. (2011, July 12). Rehabbed Stars: How Betty Ford Helped. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.people.com/people/gallery/0,,20509577_20987745,00.html

Soccer. (n.d.). Lexington School for the Deaf. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://lexnyc.org/school/soccer.aspx

Super Bass - Sign Language. (2011, September 12). YouTube. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (n.d.). Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq9805.html

BREWCITYEXPRESS. (n.d.). BREWCITYEXPRESS. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://brewcityexpress.com/tag/child-abuse/

Camp, T. (2011, January 1). Deaf Timelines - History & Heritage. . Retrieved May 5, 2014, from Deaf Timelines - History & Heritage

Child Abuse: The Ripple Efffect - Part 1 - Introduction. (n.d.). Acting Not Reacting. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.actingnotreacting.com/childabusepart1/

Cochlear Implants. (n.d.). . Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/eyes/cochlear.html

Communication Methods for Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing People. (n.d.). About.com Deafness. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://deafness.about.com/od/communicationmethods/

deaf. (n.d.). Dictionary.com. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/deaf

Dummy Hoy. (2014, March 5). Wikipedia. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummy_HoyNancy Rourke Paintings — Abbé Charles Michel de l'Epee. (n.d.). Nancy Rourke Paintings — Abbé Charles Michel de l'Epee. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.nancyrourke.com/lepee.htm

Author Cheryl G. Najarian
Explored paid and un-paid work of deaf women
Tells of how the deaf women encounter barriers as well as resists those barriers.
Carol didn't want to force her daughter to learn sign language
Marie had issues communicating with doctor's
Whether to put cochlear implants on their children or not
The women had to be activist in their families
Stephanie felt it was important to teach children to sign
Kristen taught children cued speech in order for her children to have a better chance in society
The women's parents having to negotiate with teachers to help in school
This book does an excellent job at giving reader an in depth look at the lives that af women live as well as the trials they are faced with.
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