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Sport Injuries

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Luke Pedras

on 23 May 2013

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Transcript of Sport Injuries

Psychology Of Sport Injuries Psychology model Psychological recovery depends on Psychological behaviours that
contribute to injury Factors
contributing to an increased risk of sport injury Body image Drive to be
perfect Stressors and
anxieties Coping and
recovery resources Focus, goals
and motives Risk taking
behaviours Attitudes and
beliefs Sport injury risk profile (Adapted from Wiese-Bjornstal, 2009) Body image Athlete with clinical eating disorders often puts themselves at higher risk of stress fracture injuries.
Women are more susceptible compared to men. (Rauh et al. 2010) Perfectionism Perfectionist athletes are very self critical of their performances and experience higher levels of guilt and shame.
Self-evaluations lead to excessive training behaviours, which increases the risk of overuse injuries.
Most common within athletes that participate in high-intensity sports. (Kuennen & Waldron, 2007 & Wiese-Bjornstal, 2010) Play a major role in increasing the risk factors of sport.
-Everyday stress, major life event stress, past injury stress or situations specific stress
Impacts of the stressors depend on an individual’s personality.
Athletes with poor stress management and mental skills have a disrupted attentional focus and are predisposed to an increased risk of injury. Stressors and anxiety (Williams & Andersen, 1998, Deroche et al., 2011 & Anderson & Williams, 1988) Unrealistic goals Athletes with unachievable goals often participate in more risk taking behaviours.
Done unconsciously and are very hard to take control of.
-Closely linked to a drive for success
Can be influenced from external sources such as coaches and referees. (Verhagen et al., 2010) Attitudes and beliefs Athletes with violent attitudes towards competition often use their body more as a weapon in respect to collisions resulting in higher rates of injury.
Athletes that compete for social aspects and enjoy sport have a more positive perspective and belief on sport. (Smith et al., 1997) Previous injuries Pre-existing injuries as concussions and other brain injuries can alter neurocognitive function.
-Greatly increases the risk re-injury (Jantzen et al., 2008) Psychological responses to
injury Stages
of coping Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance (Vergeer, 2006) Stages of coping Denial First stage that individuals go through.
The injured athlete tries to convince themselves, coaches and others that their injury is not a concern. (Arvinen-Barrow et al., 2010) Anger This stage is expressed through negative feelings towards the athlete themselves and others and questioning the incident of the injury. (Day et al., 2013) Bargaining Documented in athletes competing in representative sport.
Athletes try to persuade coaches, trainers and sport psychologists that they are fit to return to play, in an effort to return as soon as possible. (Rees, et al., 2010) Depression Categorised as an athlete begins to experience overwhelming sadness, affecting their everyday life.
-From the athletes absence and fear from not returning to competition, a loss of self-identity, locus of control and self-efficacy (Day et al., 2013) Acceptance Final stage where the athlete understands and starts to accept their injury.
The athlete starts to regain their sense of self-identity and locus of control. (Day et al., 2013) Athletes should allow fluctuations of emotions and pair them with short-term goals, to aid the rehabilitation process. Amateur athletes (Dawes et al., 1997) The role of psychology
in rehabilitation Psychology within rehabilitation Components of
a psychology rehabilitation strategy Education Social
support Psychological
skills
training Goal
setting Education Athletic trainers and sport psychologist act as informational support.
Understanding of the injury and the rehabilitation process aids in giving the athlete a sense of control, enabling them to develop confidence and cope with rehabilitation process more easily. (Podlog et al., 2011) Provided from existing sources present in the athlete’s life.
Team athletes should be given support by being encouraged to attend practices and games when able.
Independent athletes should be provided social support through the use of a peer model. Social support (Mitchell et al., 2013 & Rees et al., 2010) Psychological skills training PST is a systematical program for the training of mental skills, specific to the athlete.
Sport psychologists use a combination of different mental skills to get holistic mental learning.
The skills help the athlete through the rehabilitation process by enhancing positive moods and creates positive changes in physical and mental readiness. (Thelwell & Greenlees, 2001 & Johnson, 2000) Imagery Relaxation Cognitive
techniques Imagery Athletes envision themselves successfully going through therapy and returning to competition or visualise the the stages of rehabilitation.
Through imagery, athletes are able decrease pain and stress and build confidence. (Cupal & Brewer, 2001) Self-talk is greatly used to ascertain an athletes view about their injury.
Pessimistic thoughts and inner dialogue are replaced by more positive feelings and opinions to alter an athletes view about their injury. Cognitive techniques (Scherzer et al., 2001) Relaxation Can be easily applied to many aspects of the rehabilitation process.
Calms the body in times of great stress.
Relaxation techniques paired with imagery exercises reduces re-injury anxiety and diverts cognitive attention away from the worry accompanying the injury. (Podlog et al., 2011) Goal setting Activates injured athletes and gives them something to strive and aim for.
Small, psychological and physical short-term goals are set, working towards a final long term goal, full recovery.
Increases self-efficacy, motivation, confidence, locus of control and self-belief. (Evans et al., 2000, Brewer et al., 2000 & Scherzer et al., 2001) Summary Summary We have identified the significance of psychological behaviours and their consequences.
To improve conditions for athletes additional attention is required to understand the psychology of injuries. Coaches and practitioners are responsible for recognizing the signs of negative behaviour.
-Life stress and self evaluation
High risk athletes may benefit from education and modifying attitude to reduce the likelihood of injury. Summary Summary Emotional reactions following injury are anticipated.
Adopting a communicative environment and encouraging expression of emotion will facilitate adjustment.
Prolonged struggle with recovery should be countered with strategies to improve positive attitude.
-Goal setting and emotional regulation Some athletes are reluctant to solicit assistance.
Coaches and practitioners should emphasise the benefits of positive behaviours and attitudes.
Coping skills, goal-setting and positive self talk should be implemented to promote recovery. Summary Perception of injuries Derrick Rose Plays for the Chicago Bulls.
#1 Point Guard.
Reuptured his ACL in 2012. Three significant areas:
1. Psychological behaviours that contribute to injury
2. Psychological responses to injury
3. The role of psychology in rehabilitation Overview Existing
injury Amateur Professional Identity
loss Fear and anxiety Lack of
confidence Identity loss Most prevalent with elite athletes.
Elite athletes display the following characteristics in the coping process:
-Loss of self concept
-Depression
-Anxiety Five emotional responses -Andersen, M. B., & Williams, J. M. (1988). A Model of Stress and Athletic Injury: Prediction and Prevention. Journal Of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10(3), 294-306.
-Andersen, M.B., & Williams, J.M. (1998). Psychosocial antecedents of sport injury : review and critique of the stress and injury model (Antecedents psychosociaux de blessures en sport : revue et critique du modele stress et blessure). Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(1), 5-25.
-Arvinen-Barrow, M., Penny, G., Hemmings, B., & Corr, S. (2010). UK chartered physiotherapists’ personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 58-66.
-Brewer, B.W., Van Raalte, J.L., Cornelius, A.E., Petitpas, A.J., Sklar, J.H., Pohlman, M.H., Krushell, R.J., & Ditmar, T.D. (2000). Psychological factors, rehabilitation adherence, and rehabilitation outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Rehabilitation Psychology, 45: 20-37.
-Cupal, D.D., & Brewer, B.W. (2001). Effects of relaxation and guided imagery on knee strength, reinjury anxiety, and pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, 28-43.
-Dawes, H., & Roach, N. H. (1997). Emotional Responses of Athletes to Injury and Treatment. Physiotherapy, 83(5), 243-247.
-Day, M. C., Bond, K., & Smith, B. (2013). Holding it together: Coping with vicarious trauma in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 1-11.
-Deroche, T., Woodman, T., Stephan, Y., Brewer, B. W., & Le Scanff, C. (2011). Athletes' inclination to play through pain: a coping perspective. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(5), 579-587.
-Evans, L., Hardy, L., & Fleming, S. (2000) Intervention strategies with injured athletes: an action research study. Sport Psychologist, 14: 188-206.
-Jantzen KJ, Oullier O, Kelso JAS. Neuroimaging coordination dynamics in the sport sciences. Methods 2008: 45: 325–335.
-Johnson, U. (2000) Short-term psychological intervention: a study of long-term-injured competitive athletes. Journal of sports rehabilitation, 9: 207-218.
-Kuennen, M. R., & Waldron, J. J. (2007). Relationships Between Specific Personality Traits, Fat Free Mass Indices, and the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory. Journal Of Sport Behavior, 30(4), 453-470.
-Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T. & Hardy, L. (2013) Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: Effects on psychological responses on injured athletes. British Journal of Health Psychology (published online).
-Podlog, L., Dimmock, J. & Miller, J. (2011) A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: Practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Physical Therapy in Sport, 12, 36-42.
-Rauh, M. J., Nichols, J. F., & Barrack, M. T. (2010). Relationships Among Injury and Disordered Eating, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Low Bone Mineral Density in High School Athletes: A Prospective Study. Journal Of Athletic Training, 45(3), 243-252.
-Rees, T., Mitchell, I., Evans, L. & Hardy, L. (2010) Stressors, social support and psychological responses to sport injury in high- and low-performance standard participants. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11 (6), 505-512.
-Scherzer, C.B., Brewer, B.W., Cornelius, A.E., Van-Raalte, J.L., Petitpas, A.J., Sklar, J.H., Pohlman, M.H., Krushell, R.J., & Ditmar, T.D. (2001) Psychological skills and adherence to rehabilitation after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 10: 165-172.
-Smith, A. M., Stuart, M. J., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Gunnon, C. C. (1997). Predictors of injury in ice hockey players: a multivariate, multidisciplinary approach. American Journal Of Sports Medicine, 25(4), 500-507.
-Thelwell, R.C. & Greenlees, I.A. (2001) The effects of a mental skills training package on gymnasium triathlon performance. The sports psychologist, 15, 127-141.
-Tracey, J. (2003) The emotional response to the injury and rehabilitation process. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15 (4), 279-293.
-Vergeer, I. (2006). Exploring the mental representation of athletic injury: A longitudinal case study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 99-114.
-Verhagen, E. M., van Stralen, M. M., & van Mechelen, W. (2010). Behaviour, the Key Factor for Sports Injury Prevention. Sports Medicine, 40(11), 899-906.
-Wiese-Bjornstal D.M. (2009). Sport injury and college athlete health across the lifespan. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 2, 64–80.
-Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010). Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high-intensity athletes: a consensus statement. Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports, 20103-111. References What are your experiences? Emotions are unique to each individual.
Emotional behaviour can potentially influence the onset and outcome of injury. Physical factors represent the primary cause of sports injuries drawing focus away from psychological aspects.
However,
Recent evidence suggests psychological factors have a key role. Injury and Physical Nature Questions have been raised regarding the influence of psychological factors and injuries.
If psychological aspects are not taken into consideration, athletes may increase their chance of injury and/or return prematurely to competition.
It is important that practitioners understand the psychological challenges surrounding injury. Injury and sports psychologists Summary In conclusion, many improvements can be made.
A belief that a full recovery should entail both physical and psychological techniques.
Coaches, practitioners and athletes should acknowledge the importance of psychology and its influence on injury. Fear and anxiety Worry of returning to play.
Stress of the seriousness of the situation.
Fustration of not being able to train and compete. Lack of confidence Deterioration of self-belief.
Decreased motivation.
High expectations of level of performance. Bradley Thoseby, Daniel Laiman, Tye McGann & Luke Pedras (Greens & Weinberg, 2001) (Martin & Gill, 1991) (Martin & Gill, 1991)
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