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Transcript of Meaningful Work
Meaningful Work as Pedagogy
(a History across Race)
April 2010 Interlaken School (1907)
Dr Edward A. Rumely
Founded 1889, Derbyshire, England
Cecil Reddie The Deutsche Land-Erziehungs-Heime
Founded by Herman Lietz in Germany in 1898 "Manual labor makes a foundation for mental work, and the two at the same time balance one another; manual labor is splendid for strengthening the will; it infuses energy, perseverance, a social sense and a sense of duty." - Lietz "The physical training will not be derived wholly from mere games, but in a certain reasonable proportion from useful manual labour.
A healthier circulation of life-energy will thus be promoted, which will banish many of the well-known physiological troubles incident to those who have no steady work employing body and brain together, but whose school-life alternates between mere sports and mere books." - Reddie
"It is through manual labor that one discovers that enterprise demands the cooperation of others thus one learns the laws of social interdependence and becomes either a forceful leader or a patient helper with reference to the requirements of common ends." - Rumely Black Normal and Technical Schools Tuskegee
Founded 1881 by Booker T. Washington
Founded 1868 by Samuel Armstrong "Mere hand training, without thorough moral, religious and mental education, counts for very little. The hands, the head, and the heart together, as the essential elements of educational need, should be so correlated that one may be made to help others."
- Booker T. Washington Off-reservation boarding schools Carlisle
Founded in 1879 by Richard Henry Pratt Outing program "enforced participation, the supreme Americanizer" - Pratt "Every Indian child of school age can be put under educational training, and training in industry can be given to very many through agriculture…then will come the “know how” for “citizenship” and “law” and “lands in severalty”"
- Pratt Summer camps
First is founded in 1881 "a primitive sojourn into savagery appeared particularly critical to white boys’ development. After which point these young men could rise to their rightful stature as heirs to civilization"
- Paris on G. Stanley Hall on Summer Camps " boys would experience the earlier stages of social organization in a world set apart, in time and space, from the contemporary, civilized world" - Hamer on Interlaken Social Darwinism "The aim of the New School is education "unto the perfect man." Consequently their system embraces elements of culture which have been hitherto
neglected in schools...Useful manual labor is to form part of the physical training, and there is to be instruction in agriculture, gardening, as well as in handicrafts that are fitted to develop the sense of beauty and the creature instinct." - Reddie. Industrial revolution and expanding (though divided) upper class Conceptions of the city as degraded. The New School has become a movement in England, where the traditional "Public-school-as-the-nurseries-of-empire" are so stronly entrenched in the "Battle-of-Waterloo-won on the-playing-fields-of-Eton" that any innovation to survive must become a 'movement' that is, must have a propaganda with a driving power. Schools were pressured to be economically self-sufficient