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The Pacific West Coast People - Native studies
Transcript of The Pacific West Coast People - Native studies
Salishan Language Dagger shaped archipelago of some one hundred and fiftyislands
Lies about 60 miles of the British Columbia Coast
First discovered by Europeans about two hundred years ago
Both peaceful and friendly
Spread eagle feathers in the ocean as a symbolic act of welcome. The Tlingit Tribe: -A heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship, and on a rich tradition of oratory
Wealth and economic power is important indicators of status, but so is generosity and proper behavior
-All are signs of "good breeding" and ties to aristocracy
-Art and spirituality are incorporated in nearly all areas of Tlingit culture The Tsimshian Tribe Thrived on the abundant sea life, especially salmon
The salmon continues to be at the center of their nutrition and enables the Tsimshian to live in permanent towns
Lived in large longhouses
Tsimshian religion centered around the "Lord of Heaven", who aided people in times of need by sending supernatural servants to earth The Nootka Tribe: An American Indian group located mainly on Vancouver Island
Nootka is not a native word, but seems to refer to Captain Cook's rendering of what he thought the native people were calling themselves or their territory
Divided into three groups; Northern, Central, and Southern Nootkan tribes.
the Salishan language a subgroup of the Salishan language family
Spoken by First Nations or Native American peoples inhabiting the territory that is now the southwest coast of British Columbia around the Strait of Georgia and Washington state around Puget Sound
"Coast Salish" also refers to the cultures in British Columbia and Washington who speak one of these languages or dialects ENVIRONMENT The Pacific West Coast people and tribes lived on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia. There were rugged coastlines due to the presence of the Pacific Ocean and had many wide and narrow beaches. The region had many near Coastal Mountains and consisted of many islands. Spruce, cedar, and fir forests were most dominant in this region and the different native groups used these woods for canoes. Inland rivers and lakes were the native’s fresh water source and the near ocean water gave the easy access to salmon. The temperature for the most part was moderate making the pacific region convenient. Food & Tools Since the different tribes living within the pacific coast region had such convenient access to the ocean, their diet consisted of sea food. They most commonly ate salmon, crab, smelt and oysters. Other type of fish was eaten as well but salmon was preferred. The different tools the pacific coast groups used were sledgehammers, seal clubs and serving bowls. The serving bowls were made from dried wood bent to make a food dish. A unique tool found to be indigenous to the Haida tribe were fish lines. Transportation
Migration transportation was by canoe
In the summer, the coastal peoples would camp at different areas to catch food for their tribe
camps were temporary people would return to their permanent locations for the winter season It is thought that originally the majority of the pacific west coast tribes migrated from Asia to North America Beliefs were passed down orally through stories, songs, and dances
Had stories about why certain things occurred
There were also stories about each group and how they first appeared in this world
The people of the Northwest believed that they were surrounded by supernatural beings interfering with the natural world
Spirits were connected to all living things
The only link between the spirit world and the natural world was the 'Shamans' or 'Medicine Men' RELIGION & Cerrmonies Shaman wore... Bearskin robes Apr ns Rattle Skin drums Charms Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces Necklaces & Masks on occasion ART AND CLOTHING ART AND CLOTHING Totem Poles Jewelry masks Prints & paintings Wood Carvings Sculptures Paddles ART Totem Poles often raised for ceremonial purposes
Totem poles raised in front of cedar longhouses represented an important story or the crests of the family that lived in there
poles were placed on the top of burials
Now carved in wood, ivory, and argillite. Jewelry Famous for their rings, bracelets, earrings and pendants made of silver and gold
Would combine different materials such as wood, ivory, bone, copper, argillite, abalone shell, cedar bark, beads, feathers, amber, turquoise, leather silver and gold to create traditional masterpieces
Traditionally jewellery was used in ceremonies to represent wealth and high status amongst a tribe Paintings and Prints Paintings were mostly done on carved objects such as paddles, panels, clothing, etc.
replica paintings are now being done on canvas and paper
paintings on bark from various trees often represented a story or myth about spiritual creatures and animals Wood Carvings Pacific Northwest Coast Native Wood Carvings are usually made from yellow cedar, red cedar, alder, yew wood and box wood. Most often it is easy to find masks, paddles, totem poles, bentwood boxes and other containers, rattles and talking sticks made by the pacific west coast tribes. M a s k s Masks were mainly used for traditional and ceremonial purposes
Represent a spirit, creature, animal or a different mythical character
The dancers would take on the character of the creature or animal that the mask represented and enter the supernatural world
A transformation mask represented the transformation of a human to a mythical creature and or animal Sculptures made in wood, argillite, gold, silver, bronze, stone, ivory and glass
Often they were meant to tell a story
monumental sculptures have been created in bronze and wood by present day West Coast Native Indian Artists PADDLES used by many West Coast Natives to steer and paddle large cedar canoes
Paddles were also used during ceremonial dances
Used as weapons
commonly carved into and painted on Work Cited Bolstad, Bjorn. "Pages of Shades - Native Americans." Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire. Native Americans, 2000. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/nativeam6.htm>. Stolting, Walter. "Spirits of the West Coast." Canadian Native American Art Gallery : Masks, Jewellery, Carvings, Prints. 2009. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. <http://www.spiritsofthewestcoast.com/> Kew, Michael. "Native People: Northwest Coast." The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009069> Inglish, Patty. "Native American Nations of the United States West Coast." HubPages. 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://hubpages.com/hub/Nation-American-Nations-Part-VII> FAMILY FAMILY FAMILY FAMILY strong emphasis on teaching children etiquette, moral standards, and social importance
children were instructed very formally from a very young age
grandparents, participated in lessons that were often delivered gently and humorously through the telling of folktales to keep their children and in line
grandparents played a huge role in the raising of children in West Coast tribes Leung, Cora. "Northwest Pacific Coast Native Indian Houses Long House Longhouses." Inuit Art Northwest Indian Art Eskimo Native Toronto Canada. 2006. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.freespiritgallery.ca/nativeindianhouses.htm> THANK-YOU