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Living Organisms: Biological Classifications

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Michael Goorsky

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Living Organisms: Biological Classifications

Biological Classifications
Archaea
Archaea and bacteria are found in many environments (p. 18)

Archaea are single-celled organisms without a nucleus that can survive in the largest range of environments: very hot, very cold, very salty, poisonous

Protists
Most protists are single-celled (p.30)

Protists include all organisms with cells having nuclei and not belonging to the plant, animal, or fungi kingdoms. Most protists are single-celled; however, some of them are multi-celled (although the multi-celled protists have structures much simpler than fungi, plant, or animal). Protists live in any moist environment: Fresh water, seas/oceans, or forest floor


Fungi
Fungi absorb materials from the environment (p.66)

The fungi kingdom is made up of mostly multicellular organisms. The single-celled fungi are yeasts. Fungi are decomposers, meaning that they get their energy by decomposing parts of other organisms

Characteristics of Fungi (p. 67)
Unlike plants and animals, fungi do NOT have tissues or organs

Instead, a fungus is made up of a reproductive body and a network of cells that form threadlike structures called hyphae. A mass, or large group, of hyphae is known as a mycelium. The hyphae are one cell thick and release chemicals that digest materials around them. The hyphae then soak up the nutrients for the fungi.

Plants
Plants capture energy from the sun (p. 51)
Light captured from the sun must be changed into chemical energy, a form of energy all organisms use to carry out functions of life.



Animals
Animals obtain energy and materials from food (pg. 58-59)

Consumer- an organism that needs to get energy from another organism

Heterotroph- an organism that feeds on, or consumes, other organisms

Bacteria
Bacteria and Archaea are the smallest living things (p.16)

Bacteria are the simplest kind of life known on Earth. All bacteria and archaea are considered simple because they are composed of just one cell without a nucleus
(Nucleus= “brain” or control center). Bacteria reproduce through the process of binary fission

• TSW describe and illustrate characteristics and interactions of living organisms
• TSW use concept mapping software to form conclusions how biological classifications are based on how organisms are related
• TSW make and defend an organizational chart to classify organisms into the appropriate kingdom

Living things come in many shapes and sizes: (p. 9)

Organisms are any living thing. Microorganisms are very small organisms.

Scientists divide organisms into groups called kingdoms

6 Kingdoms:
Bacteria, Archaea, Protist, Fungi, Plants, Animals

What are the six kingdoms?
Bacteria come in three shapes:

Spiral:
occur in single strands
Rod:
occur as a single bacteria or in chains
Round:
occur as a single bacteria or in chains and clusters

Draw each shape of bacteria in the boxes
ROUND ROD SPIRAL
Bacteria survive in different ways (p. 19):

Bacteria can be producers, decomposers, or parasites

Producer bacteria
: make their own food by transforming
energy from sun into energy it can use

Decomposer bacteria
: get energy by breaking down materials
in dead or decaying organisms. This helps other organisms reuse
materials in decaying matter

Bacteria are very small: only about 1/20 the size of a cell
from an animal! This is why you must use an electron
microscope to see bacteria.






Bacteria may help or harm other organisms (p. 20)
Types of Archaea:

Methanogens:
Archaea that produce methane gas and live in swamps, marshes, and in the guts of cows and termites (where they help with digestion)

Halophiles:
Archaea that live in very salty lakes/ponds like the Dead Sea, for example

Thermophiles:
Archaea that live in extremely hot or cold environments like in hot springs, hot geysers like the ones at Yellowstone National Park, or deep inside ice.


Protists obtain their energy in three ways (p. 32-25)


Algae
Algae are plantlike protists that make their own food by capturing the energy of the sun and converting it to usable energy (they are plantlike)

Examples of algae (plant-like protists):
• Diatoms: single-celled algae
• Volvox algae made up of microscopic colonies of nearly identical cells arranged in a hollow ball
• Plankton: algae that drifts in water

Protozoa
Protozoa are single-celled animal-like protists that get energy by eating other organisms (they are animal-like)

Examples of protozoa (animal-like):
• Paramecium: moves using short hairs called cilia. It has a mouth-like structure called an oral groove.


Illustrate a paramecium and label its parts.


Amoeba
: moves by using flexible cells to ooze along a surface. It spreads out and wraps around its food

Other Protists
Some protists absorb food from the environment; like from the soil or from decaying organisms. (they are fungus-like because they decompose organisms like fungi)

Examples of decomposing (fungus-like)protists:

Slime molds:
move by oozing around. They live on decaying plants on the forest floor

Fungi include mushrooms, molds, & yeasts (p. 68)

1. mushrooms:
a single mushroom can be a part of one large fungus. Some can be eaten by humans, but some are poisonous to humans. Ex: portabella mushrooms or smaller mushrooms like those on pizza (these are edible mushrooms)

2. molds:
fuzzy-looking growth used to make foods like blue cheese and soy sauce. Also used to make Penicillin and other antibiotics which help humans fight off bacterial infections like pneumonia.

3. yeasts:
single-celled fungi. some grows naturally on human skin! (beneficial to humans but can cause disease if growth is uncontrolled.). Used to make bread rise




Describe each type of fungus in your own words in each box.

Photosynthesis: process in which plants capture light from the sun and convert it to chemical energy. This process takes place in the leaves

Uses sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce food for the plant in the form of sugar.


Sunlight:
Captured by the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of leaf cells.

Water
: Absorbed by the roots and transported to the leaves
• Carbon Dioxide
: A gas taken in by the leaves
What animals eat (p. 59)

What do herbivores eat? Herbivores eat plants or algae

What do carnivores eat? Carnivores eat other animals

What do omnivores eat? Omnivores eat both plants and animals

Processing Food (p. 60)
Digestion- the process that breaks food down into pieces that are small enough to be absorbed by cells. Animals need to digest food so their cells can get the energy from the food.

Reproduction (p. 67)
Fungi reproduce with spores which can be produced either asexually or sexually

A spore is a single reproductive cell that is capable or growing into a new organism

Mushrooms are spore-producing fungi. The cap of a mushroom produces spores. One mushroom can produce a billion spores!


BACTERIA
:

Read p. 16-17 & 19-21
ARCHAEA
:

Read p. 18
PROTISTS:

Read p. 30-35
FUNGI:

Read p. 66-71
Plants:

Read p. 51-57
Animals:

Read p. 58-63
Your group will create a short presentation to teach us more about your kingdom. You need to create either a Prezi or a Power Point presentation. EVERYONE must be involved in researching, creating, and presenting your project.
Suggested Elements:

You Tube Video showing organisms from the kingdom (max of 2 videos that are 3 min. each or less)
Description of other information about the kingdom not in these notes
Pictures of organisms in the kingdom with a description of what is is
More information on how those organisms get energy
WeiRD, cOoL, and oUTraGeoUS facts about organisms in that kingdom!
Make us interested in what you have to say!!!
GROUP PROJECT:
organism
microorganism
kingdom
virus
bacteria
archaea
producer
consumer
decomposer
protist
algae
plankton
protozoa
hyphae
spore
lichen
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