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UIL Social Studies 2013-14
Transcript of UIL Social Studies 2013-14
I am Will Skaggs
This year UIL Social Studies
is over Australia/Oceania!
We basically need to know about
the history of this area.
Federated States of Micronesia Papua/New Guinea
Or to be more specific...
You need to read
"A Commonwealth Of Thieves"
by Thomas Keneally.
Tasmania was discovered by
Abel Tasman, a Dutchman who
worked for the Dutch East India
Company. Originally called
Van Dieman's Land, the island was
later named Tasmania in honor
of Abel Tasman. It is now a part of the Commonwealth of Australia.
If you are doing Social Studies this year you need to know these rules:
plus an Essay (Failure to submit an essay will mean disqualification)
is 90 minutes max (though you might not need more than half of that time)
You need to
a #2 pencil with eraser or a pen (pencils work best)
If there is a
" then those essays involved in the tie will be judged one against the other(s) to break the tie"
There is no penalty for
This information and more can be found at
To find more about me, go to
Grow, Glow, and Show
your stuff this year!
Australia, originally called New Holland,
was discovered by Captain James Cook, who
claimed it for Great Britain. In 1788 Sydney Cove (New South Wales, Southeastern Australia) was colonized by convicts from England.
New Zealand was discovered in 1642 by Abel Tasman, but the islands where claimed by Captain Cook for Great Britain.
The islands where first colonized in 1840 by Great Britain and became an independent country in 1907.
New Guinea was discovered by spanish and portuguese explorers. It was colonized by The Netherlands, Germany , and Great Britain, as shown below.
In 1986 the Australia Act was passed which increased Australia's independence to it's current level as a federal democracy and a Commonwealth realm.
Under the Treaty of Versailles Germany surrendered their portion of the island to Great Britain, and England transferred control to Australia. The Dutch half became Independent State of Papua New Guinea.
The Solomon Islands were first discovered in 1568 by Alvaro de Mendana of Spain. In 1886 Germany and Great Britain split control of the islands, but after the Treaty of Versailles was signed full control was given to Great Britain.
In World War II Japan invaded the Solomon islands and the islands experienced some of the fiercest fighting of the entire war, especially and most famously the largest island of the chain, Guadalcanal. The islands gained independent sovereignty in 1978.
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines for Spain. After the Spanish-American War Spain ceded control to America who, after WWII, helped the Philippines become an independent country.
Francisco Serrão, a Portuguese trader, first developed trade with Indonesia in 1512, followed by British and Dutch traders. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia and in 1800 Indonesia became an official Dutch colony. At the start of WWII Japan took over Indonesia and after the war Indonesia declared itself an independent country.
Vanuatu (Historicity New Hebrides) Was first discovered by Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in 1606. French and British settlers came to the islands throughout the 1800's, thus France and Great Britain agreed on joint control of Vanuatu. In WWII American solders and sailors were stationed on Espiritu Santo, and their strong nationalism influenced the islands to gain independence from France and Great Britain in 1980.
Samoa was discovered in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen. Contact with the islands was scarce until the 1830's when missionaries and traders settled on the islands. Conflict between German, British, and American interests over the islands culminated in an 8-year civil war between the natives, each group supported by either Germany, Great Britain, or America. 9 years later a second civil ensued, and after wards Great Britain gave up control to Germany and America took the eastern islands (which are now called American Samoa). After WWI New Zealand controlled the German islands until a group called the Mau (“strongly held view”) used non-violent protests to gain independence on Jan. 1, 1962.
Nauru was discovered in 1798 by John Fearn, a british captain who called it "Pleasant Island". The island was annexed by Germany in 1888, and in 1914 was captured by australian troops. It remained in Australian hands until WWII when it was captured by the Japanese. Nauru gained independence in 1968.
(Interestingly, Nauru is currently among the fattest nations in the world.)
Captain Cook was born in Marton, England 11/7/1728. He volunteered for the British Royal Navy in 1755 and participated in the Seven Years War. Captain Cook discovered Australia (New Holland), Christmas island, and Hawaii. He died in 2/14/1779.
Abel Tasman was born in 1603? in Lutjegast, Netherlands. He worked as a captain for the Dutch East India Company. Tasman discovered Tasmania (Van Dieman's Land), New Zealand, Tonga and the Fiji Islands. He died in 1659?
Alvaro de Mendana was born in Congosto, Spain in 10/1/1542. He was a spanish explorer who discovered the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. He died in 10/18/1595.
Ferdinand Magellan was born in Sabrosa, Portugal in 1480. He was a page to the Portuguese queen, and was then assigned to the Portuguese fleet, until he was proven guilty of trading with Moors. 1517 Magellan renounced his Portuguese nationality and received support from the king of Spain to explore for a new trade route to the spice islands. He discovered the Marianas, French Polynesia, and the Philippines. He was killed on 4/21/1521 by a poison arrow.
Francisco Serrão was born in Portugal in 14??. He was a Portuguese trader but, unfortunately, is not a well recorded person in history. It is known that he was the cousin and good friend to Ferdinand Magellan. Serrão discovered the Philippines and Indonesia. He died mysteriously in 1512.
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros was born in 1563 in Evora, Portugal. He was a fisher in the western Pacific until 1595 when he was appointed chief pilot he was appointed chief pilot under Alvaro de Mendaña. Under his command, de Quiros discovered the Solomon Islands, but Mendaña died before de Quiros took command of the convoy and sailed to the Philippines. Pedro Fernandez de Quiros died June 1615.
Jacob Roggeveen was born in 2/1/1659 in Middelburg, Netherlands. He became notary of Middelburg, became a doctor of the law, and joined the Dutch West India Company. Roggeveen discovered Easter Island, the Society Islands, and Samoa. He died 1/31/1729 in Middelburg, Netherlands.
John Fearn was born in 1768. He joined the British Royal Navy and became an explorer. Fearn discovered Nauru and named it Pleasant Island. He died in 1837.
Micronesia was discovered in 1529? by Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón and was later colonized by Spain. After the Spanish-American War Spain sold Micronesia to Germany in 1899. After WWI Micronesia was given to Japan and after WWII became a United Nations Trusteeship and eventually became, for the most part, independent.
Brunei was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan. It was a major regional power until European influence devastated Brunei's economy. Due to the multitude of wars Brunei has lost over the past 200 years, Brunei is now reduced to it's current and tiny state.
6Federated States of Micronesia!
In 1825 gold was discovered in Australia which gave a significant boost to it's economy and emigration rates
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was one of the worlds greatest business operations ever. From 1602-1780 the VOC had an almost complete monopoly on south and southwestern Asian trade. It became a massive operation that significantly expanded Dutch influence and Dutch territory. But on New Years Day 1800 the VOC was abolished, and many of the lands owned by the VOC were obtained by Great Britain.
Delete before viewing
East Timor, or Timor-Leste, was colonized by the Portuguese in 1520. The region remained under the Portuguese until 1975. On July 7, 1976, the Democratic Republic of East Timor was declared an independent nation, yet nine days later Indonesia invaded and annexed it. After years of " Human rights abuses", East Timor finally gained independence on May 20, 2002.
Malaysia was discovered and conquered by Portugal in 1511, then was captured by the Dutch in 1641. In 1786 the british established a presence among the islands, and by 1826 directly controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore, and the island of Labuan. The areas became the independent country of Malaysia in 1963.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, was discovered on January 16, 1568 by Spainish explorer Alvaro de Mendana. The area became a British Protectorate in 1892. Tuvalu became a Commonwealth Nation on October 1,1978.
Fiji was discovered in 1643 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. Great Britain established the islands as a colony in 1874. The islands gained independence in 1970.
Kiribati, formerly the Gilbert Islands, was first discovered by a British captain named Thomas Gilbert. The islands became a British protectorate in 1892, with Ellice Islands, Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll, and the Phoenix Islands were later added to the group. in WWII the Gilbert Islands were captured by Japan, and the island of Tarawa became infamous. Kiribati became independent on July 12, 1979.
Tonga was first discovered in 1616 by Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire. In 1845 Tāufaʻāhau I, or George Tupou I, united Tonga under his rule and adopted a western-style monarchy. Fasinatingly unlike other Pacific islands, Tonga has never lost it's indigenous governance.
French Polynesia was discovered in 1521 by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. A Spanish settlement was created in 1774, though it did not last long. From 1842-1889 France annexed and developed protectorates over modern French Polynesia and the official name for the colony evolved from Settlements in Oceania (1892) to French Polynesia (1957).
The Marshall Islands were explored by Alonso de Salazar in 1526, yet the group was named after Captain John Charles Marshall, a british explorer who came to the islands in 1788. In 1874 Germany acquired the Marshal Islands, but after the Treaty of Versailles Germany gave over the islands to Japan.
Japan used the Marshall Islands as the easternmost point in their defensive ring until America conquered the islands throughout 1943. From 1946 to 1958 the Marshall Islands were home to 67 nuclear weapons tests. The Government of the Marshall Islands was officially established In 1979.
However, the Treaty of Versailles angered and embarrassed the german public, and was one of the things the Nazi party promised to take care of. Now days, the Treaty of Versailles is a famous reason for sparking off WWII (World War 2).
World War II Was the largest war in human history. 70-75 million people were killed, and Fighting took place on every continent (except Antarctica) and almost everywhere people live, from the Philppines to the frozen wasteland of Russia to the Indian subcontinent to northern Africa. Even California was bombed by a Japanese plane in early 1942. From 1936-1945 70-75 million people from 61 countries died.
After a number of orchestrated "incidents" Japan declared war on China in 1936. Then on December 7 US time, with representatives still in Washington DC, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Wake, the Philippines, Guam, and Singapore, thus declaring war on the United States of America and Great Britain (interestingly, the Japanese government sent a deceleration of war to Washington D.C., but the message wasn't read until after Pearl Harbor was hit). Japan captured parts of China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaya, Burma, Northern Borneo, Philippines Islands, Guam, Wake, Gilbert Islands, Dutch East lndies, Rabaul, Singapore, Northern New Guinea, Solomons Islands, Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, and some of the Aleutian Islands from 1936-1945. For most of these places, Japanese rule was harsh and discriminative. After the war ended many of these captured areas became independent countries.
The United Nations (UN) is the international agency
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose primary purpose is to promote global peace. It handles the recognition of new countries and settling international issues. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II and replaced the League of Nations. The UN Headquarters is in New York City.
The Treaty of Versailles was the document that officially ended WWI (World War I), specifically between the Allied Powers (British Empire, France, the Russian Empire [Russia did not participate in the Treaty of Versailles], and America) and Germany. The treaty, in short, created the inefficient League of Nations, put Germany in massive debt, limited size of the German military, and took virtually all of Germany's colonial and European territories.
Short video related to the book. The man is Mr. John Vaughan
Major Colonial Powers in the Pacific
The Spanish Empire contained large territories in the Americas, the Philippines, Guam, The Mariana Islands, and the Caroline Islands from 1565 to 1898. the main religion is Roman Catholicism, and the colonies were controlled by the Spanish monarch, from King Philip II through King Alfonso XIII. Following the Spanish–American War in 1898, most of the islands were occupied by the United States , and the rest went to Germany.
Great Britian began colonization relatively late, with the first british colony in the Pacific, Australia, being settled in 1788. But Great Britain eventually came to control Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, part of New Guenia, Fiji, parts of Indonisia, New Hebrides (Vanuatu), and the Gilbert (Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (Tuvalu). Most of these islands were partially or completely invaded by Japan during WWII, then after the war virtually all of Britain's colonies became independent nations.
Major Colonial Powers in the Pacific before WWI
The United States of America was not a major power in the Pacific until the late 19th Century, especially after the Spanish-American War. American colonies included Guam, the Philippines, Hawaii, Wake Island, American Samoa, Palau, and the Northern Mariana Islands. In 1946 the Philippines gained full independence from the US and in 1959 Hawaii became the 50th state in the United States.
The Empire of Japan was very much Isolationist until 1852 when Colonel (later President) Perry and a small fleet sailed into Tokyo Harbor and forced Japan to become active. Japan was also one of the three original signers of the Tripartite Pact. Then on December 7 US time, with representatives still in Washington DC, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Wake, the Philippines, Guam, and Singapore, thus declaring war on the United States of America and Great Britain (interestingly, the Japanese government sent a deceleration of war to Washington but the message wasn't read until after Pearl Harbor was hit). At the height of Japan's terrestrial power in 1942 Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), Manchuria, Timor, Hong Kong, French Indochina, Burma, part of New Guinea, part of the Solomon Islands, the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, Borneo, Nauru, the Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, Attu and Kiska (part of Aleutians), the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati), and the Ellice Islands (Tuvalu) were all under Japanese occupation. After WWII what locations were not recaptured were redistributed, and many island groups became independent nations.
The Dutch established The Dutch East India Company (VOC)in the early 17th Century as a means to increase commercial and colonial influence throughout eastern Asia, in addition to their colonies in Africa and the Americas. The center of Dutch power in the Pacific Ocean lies in the Dutch East Indies, a group of islands that include Java and Borneo. The East Indies split into 3 separate nations after WWII
The German Colonial Empire was short-lived in the Pacific, officially established in 1884 and disestablished in 1920. Germany controlled part of New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Northern Solomon Islands,Bougainville Island, Nauru, the Marshall Islands, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, and German Samoa. All of Germany's overseas territories were confiscated after WWI and given to Belgium, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan.
France controlled vast stretches of land in the Americas and Africa and controlled many groups of islands in the Pacific. French island bases included New Caledonia, New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), Wallis and Futuna, and most importantly French Polynesia. These islands are still under the jurisdiction of France.
P.S. Napoleon had nothing to do with Frances' overseas colonies
In 1825 gold was discovered in Australia which gave a significant boost to it's economy and emigration rates
Major Religions in the Pacific Ocean include Protestant and Catholic Christianity, Islamism, and Buddhism.
Religions widely vary throughout the Pacific Ocean. Major religions include Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam. Most countries who were colonized by Great Britain, Germany, and the USA are Protestant, former spanish colonies are Catholic, and others (mostly around mainland Asia) tend to be Islamic. For example, Australia and Nauru (Britain and Germany) are mostly Protestant, the Philippines and Guam (Spain) are mostly Catholic, and Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia (South South-East of mainland Asia) are Muslim.
If you are doing Social Studies this year you need to go here
The people of the Pacific are a mixture of different races and cultures from around the globe. Modern population estimates from Australia, Nauru, Brunei, New Zealand,East Timor, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua/New Guinea, Palau, The Philippines, Fiji, French Polynesia, Samoa, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Tonga, Malaysia, Tuvalu, The Marshall Islands, and Vanuatu are at about 33 million people from Europe, Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the indigenous people.
Most governments in the Pacific have been heavily westernized during the last three hundred years, causing ideas like democracy and organized education to integrate with native traditions and organization. The majority of government bodies are democratic, but there are others. For example, Australia, New Zealand, and Vanuatu are all Democratic, Tonga has a western-style Monarchy, and Brunei is a "constitutional sultanate".
Fishing is an important part of life in the largest ocean in the world. And fishing is the largest source of income for most people living on or around the Pacific Ocean. But other assets include pearl collecting, mining gold, some gems, petroleum, and important minerals, tourism, and some industry (mostly in larger/more developed countries).
The economy in the Pacific is based mainly on the fishing industry, though oil mining, some industry, and pearl, sulfur, and gold collecting from select countries. The combined GDP (nominal) for Australia, Nauru, Brunei, New Zealand,East Timor, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua/New Guinea, Palau, The Philippines, Fiji, French Polynesia, Samoa, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Tonga, Malaysia, Tuvalu, The Marshall Islands, and Vanuatu is at about $3.5 Trillion, with Australia owning about $1.5 Trillion.
War in the Pacific came in many forms and intensities. Since European colonization began, conquest, civil unrest, revolution, and the largest war in human history have taken place upon the largest ocean in the world. Major conflicts include the the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Spanish-American War (1890's), Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), WWI (1914-18), WWII (1936-1945), Korean War (1950-1953), and The Vietnam War (1959-1975).
In the First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) Japan fought China for control of Korea, a very seclusive territory which had been very resistant to change. After 6 months of consistent success by the Japanese army, China, under the Qing dynasty, surrendered their influence over Korea. This war demonstrated that the small, industrial Japan could beat its larger neighbor, China, and was prepared to spread its, "sphere of influence."
The Spanish-American War was fought between the US and Spain, mainly over Cuba. The US intervened in Cuba's war for independence, and the American battleship Maine mysteriously exploded and sank, persuading both countries to declare war. After about 10 weeks American armies and navies demolished spanish holding in the Caribbean, forcing Spain to sue for peace. What made this war important in the Pacific was that the US gained control over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippine islands.
ANZUS is a treaty security treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of American "Desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace in the Pacific Area" through a military alliance. Basically, ANZUS is an agreement between the US, Australia, and New Zealand to use their militaries in the event of war in order to preserve peace.
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) was established in 1967. The members include Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam