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Europe Lecture 3 The French Revolution and Europe (January 2016)

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Stephan Malinowski

on 15 January 2016

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Transcript of Europe Lecture 3 The French Revolution and Europe (January 2016)

Battle of the Nile 1798
The British fleet bears down
on the anchored French
(Thomas Whitcombe 1816)
Battle of Trafalgar, 1805
Edmund Burke (Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790)
Joseph de Maistre, Les Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg, 1821
Louis de Bonald, Essai analytique sur les lois naturelles de l’ordre social (1800)
– France no longer able to
challenge British Sea Power

– British naval supremacy for more than 100 years
(with long-term impact on British Imperialism)

– Napoleon abandons plans to invade Britain
and turns against Russia
Continental Blockade:
Smuggled British commodities are burned
in Frankfurt, Germany, 1810
Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815
'Koalitionskriege' 1792-1815 (= 23 years of war)
Rough Estimation of Casualties: 3.5 to 6.5 Million


= German Mediatization
(Suppressing the imperial immediacy
of a secular or an ecclesiastical state)
The French Revolution,
Napoleon and Europe

Jacques-Louis David, 1800
Napoleon crossing the Alpes
Francisco de Goya, 1819
Saturn devouring his son
Germany
Before / after
1806
Goya 1814
The Third of May 1808
Remains of the Grande Armée
in Russian Winter 1812/1813
Napoleon after is abdication 1814
(Delaroche 1845)
Development of the Grande Armée
marching on and back from Russia
Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (1803)
British Empire in 1815
Napoleon's ascent and fall
German Cartoon, ca. 1820
Spanish Guerilla 1808
The philosopher G.W.F. Hegel
looking at / admiring Napoleon
in Jena, Germany, 1806


'The world spirit on horseback'
(Weltgeist zu Pferde)
Ludwig van Beethoven's
scratched dedication of his
3rd Symphony (Eroica) to Napoleon
Trafalgar 1805
Austerlitz 1805
Jena/Auerstedt 1806
Russia 1812/1813
Leipzig 1813
Waterloo 1815
Hans-Ulrich Wehler (1931-2014)
'Defensive Modernization'
Restauration – Allégorie du retour des Bourbons: Louis XVIII helping up France to stand up from ruins (L.P. Crépin, 1814)
Napoleon
Lieutenant at Corsica 1792
Antoine-Jean Gros 1801 Napoleon leading his troops to storm the bridge of Arcole
Jean-Auguste Ingres (1806)
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne
Napoleon crossing the Alps
seen by Paul Delaroche 1850
The Coronation of Napoleon
Cathedral the Notre-Dame, Paris 2/12/1804
Jacques-Louis David (1807)
Napoleon First Consul of the Republic
Ingres (1802)
"Citoyens, La Révolution est fixée aux principes qui l'ont commencée; elle est finie."

“Citizens, The Revolution is established on the principles with which it began. It is over.”

Napoleon, November 1799
Important thinkers of the Counter-Revolution
Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte
General, Duke, King of Sweden
Joachim Murat
Marshal, Grand Admiral, Grand Duke of Berg, King of Naples
Sous-lieutenant Charles Legrand
(J.-A. Gros 1810)
'carrière ouverte aux talents'
careers open to the talented
Michel Ney
* 1769
1796 General
Prince of Moskowa
*1763, son of a procurator in the south of France
1794 General, 1802 Minister of War, Marshal
Prince of Pontecorvo (South Italy)
King of Sweden, King of Norway
*1768, General in 1799
1808 Duke of Treviso
1804 Marshal of France
Commandant de la Grande Armée
Governor of Silesia
Meritocracy
European History
Lecture 3
The French Revolution, Napoleon and Europe (1789-1815)
Dr Stephan Malinowski
– 'Imperial Ovestretch' (P. Kennedy)
– Failing Continental Blockade
– Growing Unity of Coalition
– Increasing pressure equaled increasing
resistance inside and outside France
(some) Factors of Defeat
Depicting the Revolution
The Death of Marat
July 1793
Painting by
J.L. David 1793
Corrupted Ideals
'Danton' Film by Andrzej Wajda (1983)
Outline
– Takes on Revolution and Counter-Revolution
– Downfall of Revolutionary Ideals and
the Rise of Napoleon

– Napoleonic Conquest and Rule
– Limits and End of Napoleonic Power
– Reasons for European support for the Revolution and for Napoleon
Meeting of the Estates General May 1789
Parlamentarism
Cult of the Supreme Being (1794)
E.L. Boullée 1781/1799
Temple for the 'Supreme Being'
Philosophy lecturing to freedom
on the Revolutionary Calender
'Rational' Order: The Départements
Terror 1793-1794
Robespierre executing
the executioner

Contemporary Caricature
– Legacies
Marie-Louise of Austria
Napoleon's Second Wife
Empress of the French 1810-1814
Josephine de Beauharnais
1763-1814
Napoleon's First Wife
Napoleon III (Louis Napoléon, 1808-1873)
Elected President in 1848
Emperor of the Second Empire 1852-1870
General Charles de Gaulle 1890-1970
Leader of French Resistance
President of 5th Republic 1958
Joseph Mortier
– Preservation of revolutionary momentum
– Destruction of Nobility,
Re-Ordering of French Elites
– Republican and Imperial Charisma
– Invention of direct links ruler-people
– Importance of Knowledge, Science,
Excellence, Technology, Universities
Legacies
P. J. Baudry (1860)
Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday, Depiction from 1880
Consequences
William Pitt and Napoleon
Third Estate Members declaring not to separate until the constitution is established
(J. L. David 1792)
Tennis Court Oath
June 1789

Casualties 700.000-1 Mio.
'Bonapartism'
Reading Suggestions
Execution of Louis XVI
January 1793
Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars

Changing perceptions
Francisco de Goya, 1819
Saturn devouring his son
Execution of Queen
Marie-Antoinette
Born 1767, Son of an Inkeeper
1799 Général de Garde
Daniel Maclise
Death of Nelson
(1857)
Kingdom of Westfalia
'König Lustig'
Full transcript