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Copy of Intro to Poetry and Literary Devices

CA Standards - Reading: 3.1-Forms, 3.6- Literary Devices
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on 9 October 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Intro to Poetry and Literary Devices

Foundation:
Narrative Forms
Free Verse
Literary Devices
Lyrical Forms
The main purpose of this style or type of poetry is to express or invoke feelings and/or emotions.
Gotta Start Somewhere
Narrative Poems are meant to tell a story. They often contain characters, describe events, and can even be deconstructed on a plot line.
Poetry
Structured poems follow a set of rules or develop a pattern.
This could include one or more of the following:
This style or form of poetry has no defined rules or set pattern to guide its construction.
Literary Devices, aka Figures of Speech, are the tools an author uses to add depth of meaning and sophistication to their writing.
Mastering Form and Meaning
Establish whether or not the poem tells a story.
If it does, it is a narrative poem.
To determine a poem's form, you must first...
If it does not, then the poem is in lyrical form.
Structured or Free Verse?
Answer the following question:
Does the poem follow any set rules or patterns?
If the poem has some kind of pattern or follows any set rules, then it is a structured poem.
If the poem does NOT follow a set of rules or have a pattern, then it is a free verse poem.
Styles of lyrical poems:
Ode
Sonnet
Ballad
Limerick
Haiku
Narrative Poems would include:
Epic
A long tale of a hero and all of his or her amazing, larger than life adventures!!!
Structured Forms
Rhyme Scheme
Repetition
Rhythm
The structured poems you should know and recognize:
Ballad
Sonnet
Haiku
Epic
Limerick
Poets are the rebels of the literary world. They break and redefine the rules of grammar and blaze trails for future wordsmiths.
Ode
Elegy
A song-like poem with a repeated chorus
that tells a story
Poetry is a genre of literature that uses:
Figures of speech
Descriptive Language
Can have a rhythm or beat
Can have a rhyme scheme
However, rhyme and rhythm are NOT always necessary!
There are many forms or styles of poetry.
The first step to understanding a poem is knowing its form.
Poetry is word art, meant to challenge, inspire, and excite our emotions and imaginations.
It is a condensed form of writing.
Couplet
Two consecutive lines that rhyme in a poem
AA, BB, CC
*Often seen at the ends of sonnets
When the author repeats a sound, word or phrase multiple times, MULTIPLE TIMES, for emphasis
the pattern created by the rhyming words at the end of a poem's lines
The pattern is labeled with letters.
Rhyming words get the same letter.
ABCB
ABCA
AABBCCDD
The beat created by patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables of words.
Think of rappers!
Different beats=Different styles and skill levels
Vanilla Ice vs. Eminem
No Exceptions Rule:
To be considered one of the above poems, the poem MUST have the signature structure. No exceptions.
Authors of less regulated or Free Verse poems can
chose
to add structure to their poems; however, this does not makes them a "structured poem".
For example:
An Ode can rhyme and an Elegy could be done with meter. These are "Free Verse" poems because the author has a
choice
.
Remember the NO EXCEPTIONS RULE!
Elegy
A poem that expresses the
sadness of the author over another person's death.
Often explains how that person died.
A style of poem
that praises
or raves about
a particular
person, place,
or thing.
This form of poem has three very strict qualifications.
1. The poem must be exactly 14 lines.
No more, no less.
2. It must follow one of a few very specific rhyme schemes.
The standard rhyme scheme is:
A B A B C D C D E F E F G G
3. Each of the lines of the poem contains 10 syllables


The syllables should follow a stressed/unstressed beat known as iambic pentameter
An unrhymed poetry form constructed of three lines, each containing a specific number of syllables
Normally the syllable count is 5, 7, 5
Because of this, all poems that are not identified by their structure fall into this category.
For class, these two are the types you need to know:
Using Literary Devices is way of: showcasing the author's talent; provoking particular thoughts, images, or feelings; catching the readers attention; adding beauty and interest to a text.
There are two basic categories that the Figures of Speech can be
shuffled into
:

Those that add to the meaning of the text,
and
Those that add to the "sound" of the text.
Meaning
Devices in this category make the audience "read between the lines", creating a more detailed picture for the reader to uncover and understand.

Most words convey several meanings or shades of meaning at the same time through their
denotation
(dictionary definition) and
connotation
(feeling associated with a word)

Metaphor
Vs.
Simile
You have heard it before and I am saying it again: if the words "like" or "as" are ANYWHERE in the comparison, then you have a simile.
If the comparison is DIRECTLY connected to the object or uses the "BE" verb, then you have a metaphor.
The comparison of two unlike objects.
Simile
Examples:
Life is
like
a box of chocolates.
Her hair is
as
golden
as
sunshine.
Metaphor
Examples:
Life
is
a box of chocolates.
Her sunshine-gold
en ha
ir.
Personification
This is when the author gives inanimate objects (things like your vacuum) or animals human-like traits, characteristics, or abilities.
Think of most Disney Pixar movies (Cars) or that really creepy part of Alice in Wonderland when all the strange talking flowers start beating up on her...
So you know, most written personification is a bit more subtle.
I hate that part.
Foreshadowing
When an author foreshadows, they give you hints about what may or may not be happening next in the text.
This always makes me think of the scary music just before something bad happens in a movie...
again, it is more subtle in writing
Symbolism
The use of objects, characters, places, actions, or events to represent an idea, concept, or deeper meaning
For example:
A sword could have mutiple meanings including, but not limited to:
courage, oppression, violence, protection, etc.

A symbol's figurative meaning depends on the author.
Allusion
An Allusion is a reference to a person, place, thing, or event that should be common knowledge.
The author is expecting that you "get" and understand the connection without explanation.
"You are carrying the weight of the world on your shoulders."
This is a reference to the character Atlas of Greek Mythology.
Idiom
An expression, commonly used, that has a figurative meaning, not a literal one.
It is how the expression is used that gives it meaning, not the denotation of the words.
For instance, when you tell me "it's raining cats and dogs" that does not (literally) mean canines and felines are falling from the sky. It (figuratively) means that it is raining heavy.
Irony:
There are three types of
Verbal Irony
Situational Irony
Dramatic Irony
The difference between what is said and what is meant
Like sarcasm
We can hear clues to verbal irony by listening to the tone of the speaker.

It is not what is said, but the way they say it.
For example, saying someone who just fell:
"Aww. Did you had a nice trip?"
This is a "real life" situation that does not quite turn out or work out like you expected.

Life happened.

The results often make you laugh or exclaim "That's messed up!"
Think about a beautiful car with an awesome custom
flame
paint job...
That dies when its engine catches
fire
!
That is ironic!
When you know something that the person in the situation does not.
Sound
The literary devices in this category affect the way we experience a piece of literature.
Alliteration
Dialect
Onomatopoeia
Rhyme vs. Rhythm
A rhyme is the repetition of the same
end
sounds of multiple words.
Rhythm is the pattern created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Irregular rhythm patterns are found in Free Verse poems, while regular patterns are called
Meter
ed poems.
C
at
, H
at
, B
at
Pr
ove
, Gr
oove
, Rem
ove
Abomin
ation
, annihil
ation
, retali
ation
Think back:
What is this pattern in a poem called and how is it defined?
The words that make the sound they describe.
Buzz
Boom
Woof
Cock-a-doodle-doo
Moo
A variation of language spoken by a particular group.
Most notable differences are seen by region.
Dialect can include definitions and pronunciations of words
Regional Examples:
Ya'll vs. you guys
fleg vs. flag
Post vs. mail
Southwest/Texas/Cowboy
Northern States near Canada
British
The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
Our brains love repetition. Major brain candy!
Think of tongue twisters
A canner can can any thing that he can, but a canner can't can a can, can he?
Remember:
Poems need their meaning unpacked. To truly enjoy them, you must slow down, break them down, and read them again.
Pay attention to the
details
and you'll see an amazing picture bloom!
All good skills need a foundation.
So you know, poems can also be called a verse.
A humorous, 5-lined, rhymed poem that tells a quick little story.
AABBA
What do you think this is?
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