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H54 - The end of WW1 - Organising Peace
Transcript of H54 - The end of WW1 - Organising Peace
World War I: Treaties and Reparations May 11 2012, United States Holocause Memorial Museum, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007428>. The Treaty of Versailles n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm>. World War 1 and the Treaty of Versailles 18 June 2009, London School of Economics and Political Science, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www2.lse.ac.uk/library/collections/pamphlets/InternationalHistory/ww1_treaty_of_versailles.aspx>. NOTE - This map is based on a fictional novel but conveys some very accurate messages Triple Entente =
Triple Alliance = France is depicted as the mad fighting boar - defending its homeland Maggots and flies attacking the Russian dog's wounds - the Russian Revolution in 1917 the very image of imperialism Britain; the lion knight London, the center of the Commonwealth Italy - depicted as double crossing serpents BULGARIA HUNGARY AUSTRIA GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY "CENTRAL
POWERS" Treaty of Neuilly Army limited to 20000 Paid 1000000 pounds Lost land to Greece in east, Yugoslavia in west Curiously, this loss of land only increased Bulgaria's affinity with Germany The Other Treaties n.d., John DeClare.net, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.johndclare.net/peace_treaties7.htm>.
The Treaty of Neuilly n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_neuilly.htm>. Treaty of Versailles Lost 13.5% of its European land
Lost ALL of its overseas colonies - were seized by Allies or became independent
Army restricted to 100000 men
Navy restricted to ships under 10 000 tons (no more Dreadnought Class battleships)
Ban on Submarines Tanks Aircraft Artillery
Primary Documents - The Treaty of Versailles 22 August 2009, First World War.com, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm>. The Treaty of Trianon n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_trianon.htm>. Lost a large amount of military might - "Any material or part thereof which may be used for the purpose of war must be given up to the Allied and Associated Powers" - "Austro-Hungarian troops on land and sea, or those of her allies not having evacuated the territories indicated within the period of fifteen days will be regarded as prisoners of war" (Military Clause article 5 of the Saint Germain treaty of 1919) TREATY OF SAINT GERMAIN: "Subject to any contrary stipulations which may be provided for in the present Treaty, the Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to retain and liquidate all property, rights and interests which belong at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty to nationals of the former Austrian Empire, or companies controlled by them, and are within the territories, colonies, possessions and protectorates of such Powers (including territories ceded to them by the present Treaty) or are under the control of those Powers." - In this article, the Allies have the right to liquidate Austrian owned property As this article shows, all Austrian military equipment could be requisitioned by the by the Allies. Treaty of Sevres: August 10th 1920 Allies given SYRIA LEBANON PALESTINE Map showing land loss of Turkish territory over the course of World War 1 n.d., Map, Islamic Web, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.islamicweb.com/history/othman_decline.gif>. http://www.islamicweb.com/history/othman_decline.gif 'Sick man of Europe' - army reduced to 50,000 men Treaty of Trianon no air force, 13 boats only Could not deal with nationalistic uprisings because of army restrictions Allies given complete trade rights over the most productive Turkish ports IDEAS BEHIND PEACE TREATIES: Woodrow Wilson's 14 points War aims - economic, political, militaristic 1. No more secrecy - no more alliance system "suprises"
2. Free navigation of all seas
3. An end to economic barriers between countries
5. Less fighting over colonies
6. German armies removed from Russia
7. Leaving independent countries alone
8. France should be fully liberated
9. Italians should be able to live in Italy - free from Austro-Hungarian rule
10. Believed in Austro-Hungarian Nationalism - free from Austrian rule
11. Balkan countries should be free from Ottoman Rule
12. Turkish people should be governed by Turkish Government - other Turks should be free
13. An independent Poland with access to sea should be created.
14. A League of Nations should be created to keep peace amongst countries The League of Nations... Europe at the end of WW1 THE IMPACT OF MILITARY RESTRICTIONS: By limiting the German army to 100,000 men and removing the technology which had made WW1 so deadly, the Allies hoped they would never have to lose so many men to a war again.
- could ask members to stop trading with an aggressive country This failed because of the Great Depression in the 1920s - Countries could not afford to stop trading. In addition, many countries (America, Germany, Russia) were not part of the League of Nations and "aggressors" could still trade with them And how it failed miserably HYPOTHESISED MEANS: - could ask member countries to attack other countries The Great Depression also hindered military production and countries' avoidance of another "Great War" led to the unchecked buildup of political instability and militarism CONTEXTUAL REASONS FOR SAID MEANS' SOCIO-ECONOMIC FAILURE: RESULTS: When Germany began attacking small vulnerable countries, the League of Nations took no action; this hesitation resulted in a second massive conflict when the Allies finally took action. END OF WW1: START OF WW2 ECONOMIC INSTABILITY POLITICAL INACTION YEAR 9 HISTORY: How did the end of WW1 lead to WW2? The end of WW1 created an economic situation which gave resentment in Germany and led to the persecution of Jews, the manipulation of the German people, not to mention war. GERMANY I'm not sure what to think... I think Germany should get another go (political reform) I think Germany should be punished! (revenge) Different
perspectives on what to include in peace treaties ECONOMIC
CRISIS WW1 END Throughout the war, women were forced to keep the economy going.
When less than half the men returned, unemployment rose. NO WORKFORCE TRADING SANCTIONS LOSS OF LAND NO JOBS = LESS REVENUE FROM TAX Through the various peace treaties, the allies imposed heavy sanctions/taxes on German trade. Very few countries wanted to trade with Germany after the war, especially newly formed neighboring Slavic nations Germany lost some of its valuable and resource rich land. It lost Alsace-Lorraine and several of its coal mines to France; Germany also lost several ports to new Slavic nations. As German people lost their jobs, the economy was plunged further into recession as the German government could no longer afford anything. In 1913, Income Tax accounted for 53% of the Government's profits. This fell to 28% in 1925 as people lost their jobs. The League of Nations, outlined in Wilson's 14 points, was designed to prevent another war. Instead, its inaction resulted in it. It has always been a critical part of human nature to cast blame in the event of catastrophe or crisis... In such a way, the German government suggested the Jewish people (who were really as poor as the rest of them) were to blame for the economic crisis. The National and Socialist Party (Nazi party) took power with over 90% support from the people and sought to reclaim land lost due to the various treaties of 1919... Germany began rebuilding its army and taking over land it lost at the end of World War 1 to try and end the economic crisis it was faced with. Britain and France initially showed hesitation to fight Germany - many British and French diplomats actually supported Germany becoming a power again to prevent the spread of communism. Once they realised Germany had far bigger intentions, it had already built up a huge army and had made alliances with Italy and Japan..... Castillo, D December 2003`, German Economy in the 1920s, No sponsor listed, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/projects/1920s/CastilloAuthors.htm>. World War 2 - Causes n.d., History on the Net.com, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW2/causes.htm>. Lost significant amounts of land to independent Slavic nations. WHO WAS INVOLVED? FRANCE Woodrow Wilson AMERICA Georges Clemenceau ITALY "THE BIG FOUR" (COUNTRIES) Benitio Mussolini Wanted revenge for the destruction Germany had caused in France. Wanted to take advantage of German position and reclaim Alsace-Lorraine Brutally seized power in 1925 with his personal mafia "black shirts". Proceeded to invade Ethiopia and installed himself as the dictator of the new Italian empire Created the "pact of steel" (1939)
- a strong alliance between Italy and Nazi Germany BRITAIN Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) n.d., British Broadcasting Commission, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mussolini_benito.shtml>.
Signing the Treaty of Versailles, n.d., Eyewitness to History.com, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/versailles.htm>. David Lloyd George THE BIG FOUR The Treaty of Serves n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_sevres.htm>.
League of Nations n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/leagueofnations.htm>. Woodrow Wilson n.d., History Learning Site, accessed 18 June 2012, <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/woodrow_wilson1.htm>. To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism. To steal from many is research.