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Copy of Ideology - Background on Animal Farm

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Ms. Barnhart

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Ideology - Background on Animal Farm

Historical Background of Animal Farm
The Russian Revolution
The author, the context, the novella
Remember, Orwell is a socialist
Real name was Eric Blair
Lived 1903-1950
Also wrote "1984", "Shooting an Elephant", lots of essays
In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act.--George Orwell
Tsar (Czar) Nicholas II
Karl Marx
German, lived 1818-1883
Journalist > Historian > Philosopher
Wrote "The Communist Manifesto" and "Capital"
Founding theorist of Communism
What is Communism?
variations called Socialism and Marxism
idea that workers and peasants are exploited in capitalism
workers and peasants should join together to overthrow capitalism
create new society without exploitation by class (position in the economy)
also, that this evolution is inevitable, or destined to happen...Communism evolves from Capitalism
1930s through 1950s in Soviet Union
Power Struggle
Early Days
the last Emperor of Russia
ruled from 1894 to 1917
incompetent, despotic
starvation of peasants, urban riots, killed many
Resistance to Tzar's rule
rebellion in 1905
World War I (1914- 1919) was a failure for Russia
Gave up power in 1917
Vladimir Lenin
Russian, lived 1870 - 1924
Lawyer, revolutionary, activist
Marxist, sought revolution
Jailed and exiled by Tzar Nicholas II
Returned to Russia and led October Revolution of 1917
at first, revolution is very popular
Lenin is the unquestioned leader
people happy to be rid of Tzar
but life is still hard, and the future is bleak
Lenin dies in 1924
Who will take over?
Leon Trotsky
Josef Stalin
1875 - 1940
initially an opponent of Lenin's
intellectual, great speaker
believed in worldwide revolution
critic of some things in early Soviet days, saw things going wrong
1878 - 1953, from Georgia.
Stalin was a nickname (means "steel")
Ally of Lenin's, very good at making alliances behind the scenes
did not believe socialism could be exported
favored developing SU's military power
Long Story Short: Stalin wins
Trotsky banned, exiled, assassinated
Brutal (20 Million deaths)
suppresses and kills opponents
allows some areas to starve
Siberian gulag
uses propaganda
revises history
Early on, supports overthrow of Tzar Nicholas II
But quickly becomes disillusioned with actual events and the path the revolutionaries take
Orwell saw a little boy, “whipping a huge carthorse along a narrow path. It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the proletariat.”

What is Orwell warning against?

Animal Farm
Rhetoric vs. Propaganda
Dramatic Irony
Rhetorical Fallacies
Rhetorical Fallacies Evidence & Analysis to Support Observation(s)

Bandwagon A fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too. “Jump on the bandwagon”
Everyone is voting for him.

Bifurcation A fallacy that creates an “EITHER-OR or If not this, then that” situation and assumes that 2 categories are mutually exclusive…
You are either in agreement with us or you’re not

Sweeping Generalization A fallacy that assumes that what is true of the whole will also be true of the part, or that what is true in most instances will be true in all instances.
She must be rich because she goes to an expensive college.

Appeal to Ignorance A fallacy that attempts to use an opponent’s inability to disprove a conclusion due to lack of knowledge or understanding
You can’t prove I am wrong, so I must be right.

Ad Hominem A fallacy that attempts to refute an argument by indicting the source of the argument rather than the substance of the argument itself.
Vote for me because my opponent is not a good choice.

Slippery Slope A fallacy that suggests that if one step or action is taken it will invariably lead to similar steps or actions, and the end results are negative or undesirable. (A chain reaction of cause and effect events)
If I let one person interrupt my lecture with a question, then everyone else will interrupt me too.

Appeal to the Crowd Ad Populum: A fallacy that refers to popular opinion or majority sentiment to provide support for a claim. The common man or common sense provides the basis for the claim.
All I can say is that Professor Wimbley’s exam was extremely unfair. Just ask anyone.

Hasty Generalization This fallacy bases an inference on too small a sample
That movie star is rude, just like all movie stars are rude.

Full transcript