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Dr. Suppo Resource Guide for Teachers
Of Kindergarten Students
with Autism Spectrum Disorders Cognitive/Academic Social and Emotional What is Autism? Behavioral Tips Communicative Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of
developmental disabilities that can cause significant
social, communication and behavioral challenges. Instructional Tips Instructional Tips Behavioral Tips Types of Autism There are three primary types of autism: 1. Autism Disorder ("classic" autism): People with Autistic Disorder, typically have significant language delays, social and communication challenges and unusual behaviors and interests. Some people with Autistic Disorder also have an intellectual disabilities. 2. Asperger Syndrome: People with AS usually have some milder symptoms of Autistic Disorder. People with AS might have social challenges and unusual behaviors and interests. They typically do not have language and intellectual disabilities. 3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS): People who meet some, but not all, of the criteria for Autistic Disorder or AS may be diagnosed PDD-NOS. People with PDD-NOS, usually have fewer or milder symptoms possibly including some social and communication challenges. (American Autism Association, 2012) Signs of Autism Symptoms of Autism can present themselves at a very young age (before age three), in the first few months of life, or not until twenty-four months or later. Signs to look for:
-normal development until 18-24 months, then a loss or stagnant gain of skills.
-not responding to name by 12 months
-not pointing at objects to show interest by 14 months
-not playing "pretend" games by 18 months
-avoiding eye contact/want to be alone
-delayed speech and language
-having trouble understanding feelings of others and their own
-repeat words of phrases
-have difficulties with minor changes
-Flapping hands, rocking their body, spinning in circles
-unusual reactions to the way things sound, smell, taste, look and feel (American Autism Association, 2012) Autism
in the Classroom Students with an ASD in your classroom may exhibit some of these difficulties: -sensory and perceptual abnormalities of over/under
sensitivity to touch, smell, sound, taste, light or movement
-fine motor control problems (writing)
-gross motor control problems (clumsiness)
-limited attention span or inability to block distractions
-lack of appropriate eye contact
-speaking out of turn/interrupting
-over-compliance (easily led)
-anger or aggression (when "their way" is not met)
-lack of organizational skills
-anxiety during unstructured or unfamiliar situations
-difficulty managing time (Hunter & D.O.E.) Visually Cued Instruction:
The use of pictures, pictographs and written language to aid in instruction, organization, activity checklists and daily schedules.
Individual Work System:
This is a visually organized space where students practice acquired skills. The teacher must establish four areas for the I.W.S. (1) the task the student is to do (2) how much work is to be completed (3) how the student knows they are finished (4) what to do when finished. http://www.autisminternetmodules.org/up_img/Lorna_Checklistlg.jpg A Visual Cue Example Instructional Tips Language Symbols:
Children with ASD can learn language through auditory-temporal symbols (speech), visuo-temporal symbols (sign), and/or visuo-spatial symbols (graphic/print).
Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy (BCIS):
The teacher interrupts a student engaged in a multi-step routine to create an opportunity for the student to ask for assistance or request an object.
Written and pictorial examples of phrases or sentences used to cue appropriate topics of conversation or other verbal interactions.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS):
Students are taught to initiate communication using picture symbols.
Pre-linguistic Milieu Teaching:
Child-directed play-based intervention that focuses on pragmatic functions like turn taking, requesting and commenting. Task Interspersal:
Preceding a difficult task with a series of short, easy requests reinforcing compliance. The student receives repeated success and reinforcement before the difficult task is presented.
An object or activity that the student likes, which is presented after the desired behavior to increase frequency.
When the student responds incorrectly, attention and stimuli are removed for 3 seconds. Instruction is repeated with a more intrusive prompt.
Prompts are visual, verbal, physical, gestural or proximal cues delivered to the student to alter a behavior.
Self management promotes independence in the classroom. The student is taught to (1) discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behavior (2) evaluate own behavior (3) monitor behavior over time (4) reinforce behavior ~This is a great strategy for center work completion. *Examples include:
hand over hand direction,
pointing, verbal reminders
or remaining in close proximity. Priming:
Previewing the information or activity with the child before engaging in the activity or learning experience with the class.
Pivotal Response Training (PRT):
PRT incorporates choices, reinforcing attempts, modeling, and natural consequences.
Teaching single actions, and when linked together, achieve a goal. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/picture-symbols A Visual Communication Example Behavioral Tips Prompt Fading:
Gradually reducing prompts as the student begins to master the objective. This process allows the student to independently make the request.
The teacher or support personnel verbalizes what the student is doing or appears to be communicating nonverbally.
Natural Behavioral Intervention:
Occurs in the natural teaching environment where the student is provided with prompts and models as needed to encourage communication.
The teacher or support personnel imitates the student's nonverbal behaviors in order to connect and communicate with the student.
Using Verbal Behaviors to teach effective communication:
Echoics: Hear-Say responses:
Mands: Requesting; brief deprivation, interrupted chain, incidental moment:
S-"I want milk" T-gives milk
Tacts: See-Say response. Teach tacts across the senses. S- Sees a car and says "car".
T- "yes that is a car".
Intraverbals: Hear-Say Responses.
T-"How are you?" S-"I'm fine." Social Skills Groups:
A group of typically developing students and students with ASD. Students are to have free play, followed by "circle time" to interact and learn social skills, then a break-out session of small group instruction to focus on a specific social skill, then back together for a closing circle time instruction, and ending with play.
Teaching a peer (preferably an older student when working with kindergarten) a specific social skill to teach and respond to the student with an ASD.
A short, personalized story, written in the perspective of the student, to deliver and teach social interactions.
Visual Cues and Rules:
Using pictures or written cues to teach and prompt the student for turn taking and transition times during tasks and activities. Reciprocal Imitation Training:
Teaching the student to imitate an action with an object when they see it performed by another person instead of in response to a verbal command.
The student watches a video clip of a target behavior and is then given the opportunity to perform the target behavior.
Using a peer to support the student with an ASD, to improve the social interactions of the student.
Circle Time/"Buddying" Approach:
Used to assist the student in making friendships and maintaining them over time.
Peer Sensitivity Training:
Typical peers are taught skills and learn how to interact appropriately to develop relationships as equal members. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/18906 A Video of using Picture Cues to Communicate http://pinterest.com/jslandt/social-skills/ Many Examples for Social Strategies Using PECS A Video of Priming- Preparing the student for the return to school A Video of Peer Mediated Tutoring and Intervention Using Visuals to Teach See Some "Tips" in Action American Autism Association. http://www.myautism.org/
Bayes, D. A., Heath, A. K., Williams, C., & Ganz, J. B. (2013). Pardon the Interruption. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(3), 64-70
Cardon, T., & Wilcox, M. M. (2011). Promoting Imitation in Young Children with Autism: A Comparison of Reciprocal Imitation Training and Video Modeling. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 654-666. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1086-8
Fynn, S. (2012). Inclusion Strategies for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Learn NC.
Ganz, J. B. (2007). Using Visual Script Interventions to Address Communication Skills. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(2-), 54-58
Harrower, J. & Dunlap, K. (2001). Including Children With Autism in General Education Classrooms- A Review of Effective Strategies. Behavior Modification (Sage Publication), 25 (5), 762-784 https://depts.washington.edu/pdacent/Publications/Dunlap/Dunlap1.pdf
Hume, K., Plavnick, J., & Odom, S. (2012). Promoting Task Accuracy and Independence in Students with Autism Across Educational Setting Through the Use of Individual Work Systems. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 42(10), 2084-2099. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1457-4
Hunter, J. & The Department of Education. Autism Spectrum Disorders, A Guide to Classroom Practice. http://www.deni.gov.uk/asd_classroom_practice.pdf
Leaf, J. B., Dotson, W. H., Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L., Sherman, J. A., & Sheldon, J. B. (2012). A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children With Autism. Topics In Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2), 111-121. doi:10.1177/0271121411405855 Resources Mancil, G. Richmond & Haydon, Todd (2009). Enhancing Functional Communication Skills of Children with ASD Across Environments. Council For Children with Behavior Disorder- Presented by University of Louisville. https://louisville.edu/education/kyautismtraining/handouts/CCBD2009_FCT.pdf
More, C. (2008). Digital Stories Targeting Social Skills for Children With Disabilities: Multidimensional Learning. Intervention In School & Clinic, 43(3), 168-177
Patten, E., & Watson, L. R. (2011). Interventions Targeting Attention in Young Children With Autism. American Journal Of Speech-Language Pathology, 20(1), 60-69
Quill, K. (1995). Visually cued instruction for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Focus On Autistic Behavior, 10(3), 10-20
Resources from Website Examples
http://pinterest.com/jslandt/social-skills/ Resources Resources