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Introduction to Photography

A brief introduction into the three parts of photography.
by

Shannon Painter-Carpenter

on 11 May 2018

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Transcript of Introduction to Photography

Basics
Three Main Elements for Photography
The Shutter
The opening/closing of the door that allows light inside your camera.
Aperture
Controls the SIZE of the opening the light will pass through into the camera
ISO
A bit more difficult to understand
The film or sensor's sensitivity to light
Basically how fast the sensor can absorb the light
When everyone shot in film we called
Film Speed
The Perfect Triangle
Introduction to Photography
Why Not Auto modes?
P: Mode
S: Mode
A: Mode
M: Mode

Specific Auto Modes
Portrait - Close up of people - blurs background
Landscape - Wide view and sharpness of a place
Child - Shows bright colors + faces
Sports - Freezing action
Close Up - Shooting tiny things
Effects & Scene Modes
Manual
Aperture priority
Shutter Priority
Program
Light Meter
1. Shutter - Door
2. Aperture - Lens opening
3. ISO - Light sensitivity
Exposure
Used in order to create
How much light is allowed onto the film or sensor in order to create an image.
The sound you hear when you take a picture. It will sound faster or slower depending on the setting
Measured as a fraction of one second
1/30 (30) or 1/60 (60)
Lowest shutters for hand held shots without camera movement
Deals with
TIME
controls the motion
Viewfinder will show as whole numbers such as 60, 125, 250 or 500 but they are actually fractions: such as 1/60 of a second or even 1/2000 of a second. You can allow for the shutter to stay open as long as you wish.
Tip:
Faster shutter speeds FREEZE action
A smaller fraction of a second
1/150 or 150 in your viewfinder is necessary
As long as you have enough light
Slower shutter speeds BLUR action
A larger fraction of a second
1/15 or 15 in your viewfinder will blur movement
Allowing motion to blur can create a sense of drama, movement, artistic expression
Your camera will make the exposure decisions based on which one you select. It will be an average of all possibilities - often leaving the image also looking average.
Night Portrait - shows person and background
Night Landscape - use tri-pod to see street lights
Party/Indoor - shows background, similar
Beach/Snow - for bright high-contrast scenes
Sunset - emphasize rich colors, no flash
Dusk/darn - similar to sunset
Pet Portrait - action mode for pets
Candelight - no flash
Blossom - more in focus, small aperture
Autumn Colors - makes reds and yellows richer
Food - boosts colors
Silhouette - turns front images dark
High Key - when areas very bright
Low Key - when areas very dark
For many who want off auto the alternate auto modes are a big step for your photography and a good place to start.
Best way is to practice and experiment with changing different modes and comparing the results.
Measured in f-stops
f/2.0, f/2.8, f/3.5, f/8, f/22
There are several in between
The smaller the number the bigger the opening
Part of your LENS for your camera.
Two lenses can zoom far but if one opens to a 2.8 it is about $1000 more than one that only opens to 3.5
International Organization of Standardization
The higher the ISO number the faster the light hits the sensor BUT the more ISO - the more fuzzy images look
The lower the ISO the more sharp an image looks but you must have enough light or the image will be dark.
A correct exposure (good picture) is a simple combination of three important factors: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.
You set the ISO and the camera will make all the other decisions
You must manually pop up your flash
Gives you a bit more control
Good place to start.
You set the shutter speed and the camera controls everything else
Good to use for outdoor sports.
Flexible to make certain changes you couldn't on the auto action mode.
You set the aperture and the camera makes the other decisions
Good to use when shooting in low light and need aperture to be large
Also good to use when you want everything in focus and use a small aperture
Same flexibility as S mode
You must set everything.
Focus on the big three
Shutter
Aperture
ISO
Must use your LIGHT METER
Your camera will tell you if you have enough light to get a good exposure
As you look through your viewfinder you see the light meter graph line
Should be located below your image and will adjust as you change aperture or shutter
Next Session
Light
Using natural light correctly
Understanding White Balance
Shooting in Manual Mode
Think of ISO as a worker bee. If my camera is set for ISO 100, I have, in effect, 100 worker bees; If your camera is set for ISO 200, you have 200 worker bees. (2 cameras) The job of these worker bees is to gather the light that comes through the lens and make an image. If both of our cameras are set with the same aperture opening, who will record the image the quickest, you or me? You will, since you have twice as many worker bees at ISO 200 than ISO 100.

BUT we will have different shutter speeds. If you come in faster, you need 1/250 but I will need 1/125, a slower shutter because it will take me longer to gather the light for the image.
However, the higher the ISO the more visual NOISE you will see within your image
Avoiding White Noise
In order to stop taking blurry images that are crisp with great color we will cover:
When you take a picture, you are really taking an exposure
Step One:
Turn your camera dial to M for Manual
Step Two:
Turn camera on and look through
your viewfinder.
Step Three
Look at the numbers across the bottom or side. Write them down how they are in your viewfinder.


Specific Auto Modes
Your camera will make all exposure decisions based on which one you select. It will be an AVERAGE of all possibilities - often leaving your image also looking average
Portrait - close up of people - often blurs the background

Landscape - Wide view and sharpness of entire scene

Child - Shows bright colors + faces - uses faster shutters

Sports - Freezes action - no flash

Close Up - Shooting tiny things (macro)

Effect and Scene Modes
These are more specific modes
Best to just play around with the settings and determine which ones you like the best
Figure out how to make those changes through your manual and practice so you remember how to find it
Why not the Auto modes?
For many who want off the general auto mode - the alternate auto modes are a big step for your photograph and a good place to start
Professional Modes
P: Program Mode

S: Shutter Priority Mode

A: Aperture Priority Mode

M: Manual Mode
Taking your photography to the next level
P: program mode
You set the ISO and the camera will make all the other decisions
Gives you more control

Must manually pop up your flash
GREAT place to start... most of my photography when I got my first DSLR were taken on P
Turn dial to P
Change your ISO to a neutral one at first - 400 or so and see what happens
Adjust your ISO as Needed. Think about the light around you.
Are you inside and is it nighttime? Increase ISO
Are you outside? Decrease ISO to 200
Are you in a gym? Increase ISO to 1600 or 3200
Take notes as to what ISO works best in what situation until you get the hang of it and just know it
S: Shutter Priority
You set the shutter speed and the camera controls everything else

Good to use for OUTDOOR sports
Flexible to make certain changes you couldn't on the Auto action mode
ISO
White Balance (we will cover in Session 2)
Adjust your White Balance as Needed. Think also about the light around you. Keep on Auto for now. More about White Balance in Session 2
Turn your dial to S and take some practice shots
A: Aperture Priority
You set the aperture and the camera controls everything else
Good to use when you have low light and need the aperture to be as open as possible
Good when you have a landscape and you want the image to have wide depth of field - all in focus: small hole; big number
Turn dial to A
Set the aperture
Control the ISO and white balance
M: Manual Mode
This is the setting you should strive to use most often
You control everything
Focus on the
BIG THREE

Shutter
Aperture
ISO
Must get the correct combination to get a correct exposure (good picture)
Must use your LIGHT METER
Bottom Line
Regardless if you have your camera set on one of the auto modes or professional modes your overall goal is the same:
TAKE THE BEST PHOTO POSSIBLE
Start small and work your way up. Begin where you feel most comfortable and strive to improve and move to the next level.
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