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1950's

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Emily Tarr

on 9 May 2011

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Transcript of 1950's

Joseph McCarthy 1950's Early Career Life
Joseph McCarthy was born November 8th, 1908. Joseph first attempt in the polictical office was when he ran for District Attorny as a democrate in 1936. He sought the nonpartisan post of judge in the Tenth Judical Ciurcuit which cover several counties in Wisconsin. He became the youngest Circuit judge ever selected in WI. He was commissioned a first lieutenant in the marines near the Pacific ocean in 1942. After resigning from the military he McCarthy was re-elected with hesitation. Segregation in the 1950's Senetor McCarthy
McCarthy became part of the Repulican Party after returing from being a lietenant in the military. Joseph ran for senetor against the famous Robert M. La Follette, Jr which was famous for serving in the senete for 21 years. After an energetic Campagin he beat Robert and became the youngest member of the US Senete. He was only 38 when he left WI to go to Wachinton DC. When the issuer rised over communist spies Joseph took it opon him to start an investigation. Joseph McCarthy would investigate his list then would give it to the committee. The comitee was under the direction of senetor Tydings, Democrate of Maryland. Senetor Tydings on july 17 1950 issued a report for McCarthy's charges, they found no reson for them. McCarthy soon became famous in the media.

McCarthy was re-eleceted in 1952 with only 54% of the votes. He was elected the Chairmen on Goverment Operations and subcommitee on investigations. "I have here in my hand a list of two
hundred and five [people] that were
known to the Secretary of State as
being members of the Communist Party
and who nevertheless are still working
and shaping the policy
of the State Department" (Joseph McCarthy Qtd in Joseph McCarhty Quotes).
Equality was a big problem at the beginning of the 1950’s. All over the Untied States, especially in the more southern states, segregation became more known as Black Americans had to “fight for their right to equality” (Historyonthenet.com). Through the 50’s, boycotts, marches, speeches, sit-ins, and freedom rides were held as the Civil Rights Movement began. Martin Luther King, Jr., a Baptist preacher, was the leader of this movement. Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas) "I have here in my hand a list of two
hundred and five [people] that were
known to the Secretary of State as
being members of the Communist Party
and who nevertheless are still working
and shaping the policy
of the State Department
(Joseph McCarthy Qtd. in People.UBR.)."
1954, Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Especially during the early 50’s, many schools had segregation laws, which was greatly accepted across the United States. In fact, school segregation was mostly considered a law in all of the southern states. However, in the early 1950’s, a young black third-grader, Linda Brown, had to walk one mile to her all black-student school, even when a white school was only seven blocks from her house. Linda’s father, trying to get her into the white school, was denied, and he took the problem, to the head of NAACP in Topeka. In 1951, the NAACP took the case, as well as others, to the US District Court to try and rid school segregation in Topeka. While the NAACP argued that segregation in the schools at such a young age made the black kids feel inferior to white kids, the Board of Education fought that segregation in schools would get the kids ready for the segregation they would face as adults. "We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does...We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.” –Chief Justice Earl Warren, May 17th, 1954 (Cozzens) This case was the first school segregation case to make a mark in history, and although it did not completely abolish school segregation, nor any other forms of segregation, the Brown v. Board of Education is now considering a huge step leading to the desegregation of schools. Rosa Parks, who was 43 at the time of her arrest, refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama. Immediately after, Parks was arrested. This boycott was set up by Martin Luther King, Jr. However, many of the other bus boycotts included blacks not riding the buses at all. This caused 65% of the buses’ income to drop dramatically. Martin Luther King, Jr., was fined about $500 for creating these bus boycotts, but blacks continued to fight for equality. 1955- Montgomery Bus Boycott In the year 1957, the year in which Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, was supossed to be desegregated, on September 3rd, the first day of school, National Gaurdsmen met the nine black students who were trying to go into the school. These guardsmen were under the order of the state governor, and prevented the students from entering. About 20 days later, on September 23rd, the nine students were yet again prevented from entering their high school due to over 1,000 townspeople who formed a mob outside the school. On September 25th, finally, due to President Eisenhower's ordrs, Little Rock Central High School was finally desegregated. 1957- Desegregation at Little Rock, Arkansas Rosa Parks Born Feb. 4, 1913 - Died Oct. 24, 2005
On December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks participated in the Montgomery Bus Boycott, as she refused to move to the back of the bus as the driver had asked her to do. The other three black men that were asked by the driver to move to the back obeyed him, but as Rosa wouldn't rise and move back, the driver called the police, and an officer came to arrest her almost immediately. Later that night, she was out of jail on bail, but "Rosa was a person who was above reproach, and people could not find fault with her character" (gardenofpraise.com). Rosa was not the first black person to stand up for her rights, but she did leave a lasting impact on people of the United States and all over the world. McCarthy's Downfall
The first mistake that McCarthy made was angering the new president by saying that he was sheltering communist. This resulted in Dwight Eisenhower secretly isolating him.

March 9, 1954 the CBS broadcast of Edward R. Murrow's "See it now" was a direct attact on Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy came back at this Broadcast by answering all of the cristism with a answer.

His last and final straw was when he accused the Army of sheltering terrorist. This made them very maddened

August 1954- Senete commitee was formed to investigate censoring McCarthy. They called his actions "inexcusable," "Reprehensible," "Vulgar and Insulting" Thurgood Marshall Thurgood Marshall, born in 1908, played a large role in the 1950’s civil rights movement. He was the leader of the NAACP, and was the first African-American to be elected to the supreme court, a huge monumental moment in segregation history. His most famous case was the Brown vs. Board of Education, which took place in 1954. In this case, the court ruled “separate but equal could not be acceptable as it was clear from the evidence that was presented to the court that schools that taught black children in the south were definitely separate but they were anything but equal. Brown v Topeka made the concept of 'separate but equal' illegal” (Truman). In 1955, the murder of Emmitt Till occurred, a young black man who at the age of 14 was brutally murdered. When he had lived in Chicago, he had come across segregation, but not as bad as the segregation he would face while visiting relatives in Mississippi. The story told is that he went up to a female in a store, Carolyn Bryant who was the wife of the store’s owner, and made a comment about her. A few days later, the owner of the store (J.W. Milam), as well as his brother-in-law, showed up at Emmitt’s uncle’s house, and together they took Emmitt. Just three days after, Emmitt’s body was found in the Tallahatchie River. When word got out about this crime, people everywhere were horrified. “Whites in Mississippi resented the Northern criticism of the ‘barbarity of segregation’ and the NAACP's labeling of the murder as a lynching. Five prominent lawyers stepped forward to defend Milam and Bryant, and officials who had at first denounced the murder began supporting the accused murderers. The two men went on trial in a segregated courthouse in Sumner, Mississippi on September 19, 1955” (Cozzens). Around this time, it was unusual for black people to accuse whites of committing crimes, and this case caught a lot of attention, and left a lasting impact on the country. Mother Pollard was a woman who took part in the Montgomery Bus Boycott on December 1st, 1955. She was part of the same church as Martin Luther King, Jr. This quote reflects how she was feeling too old to take part in these boycotts, yet it made her feel better to know that she was fighting for her rights, as well as many other’s, as well. "My feets is weary
but my soul is rested."
-- Mother Pollard McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950) OSU, Oklahoma State University admitted a man named G.W. McLaurin, who was a black man looking for a good college. The state colleges for black people did not compare to Oklahoma State, and he wanted an equal oppurtunity. However, he was segregated from his classmates as he sat alone in the classrooms, lunch room, and the library. He was able to have the Supreme Court support him as he argued that this was unconstitutional. Red Channels
This was a list of people accused
of Communism. This list was made by
Joseph McCarthy. If you were put on this list it
ment that anyone that came into contact with
could be suspected of communism. Many people
lost there jobs because they were afraid to be put
on trial and then be put on the Red Channel. This
became known as the Communist Red scare. The Down Fall to Joseph McCarthy
Overview Murrow Vs. Joeseph McCarthy "'THE AFRICAN AMERICAN STRUGGLE for desegregation, observes Gary Orfield, co-director at the Harvard Civil Rights Project and among the nation's leading experts on desegregation, did not arise because anyone believed that there was something magical about sitting next to whites in a classroom. It was, however, based on a belief that the dominant group would keep control of the most successful schools and that the only way to get full range of opportunities for a minority child was to get access to those schools.'"Gary Orfield quoted by The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights/The Leadership Conference Education Fund. The 1950's was an important decade for all. Across the globe, discoveries were made, inventions were created, wars were fought, treaties were signed, and not only was there the Baby Boom, but there was a boom in the entertainment industry as well. Segregation took place in the United States, especially the South. Joseph McCarthy created "McCarthyism", Chuck Berry created "Rock and Roll". Dr. Seuss wrote children's books, and "I Love Lucy" was the hit TV show. The 50's left a lasting impact on the entire globe with the people who lived during the decade, and the events that occurred. Little Richard, a musician who first became famous in the mid-1950's, first recorded this song, "Tutti Frutti", in 1955. The chorus' last belted out line, "a wop bop a loo bop, a lop bam boom" became popular across the nation as he helped develop rock and roll. His songs and albums sold among all races as he became more and more popular by day. Warsaw Pact, 1955 In 1955, the Warsaw Pact was signed by representatives from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Albania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Romania. The reason for this pact, as the Soviet Union initially stated, was that is was a "direct response to the inclusion of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in NATO in 1955" (Curtis). However, this treaty gave the Soviet Union the power that they had always wanted. This pact stated that "relations among the signatories were based on total equality, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, and respect for national sovereignty and independence" (Curtis). However, the power that came from the this alliance between the Eastern European Nations was giving the Soviet Union more defense from outside aggressors and more military and political power. A Glimpse at the 50's 1950- Brinks Bank Robbery in Boston 1951- Rock and Rolls Begins in America 1952- Winter Olympic Games 1953- DNA Discovered 1954- Four Minute Mile Broken 1955- Disneyland Opens Suez Crisis of 1956 1957- Dr. Suess Publishes "The Cat in the Hat" 1958- NASA founded 1959- Alaska and Hawaii become part of the United States Summary of the Korean War On January 17th, 1950, the Brinks Bank in Boston, Massachusetts was robbed of about 2.7 million dollars, about half in cash and the other half in checks. At the time, it was considered the century's biggest crime. Allen Freed, a disc jockey, is the man credited with the term "Rock and Roll". It was a new genre of music that became a sensation in America, especially for teenagers. In Helsinki, Finland, the 1952 Summer Olympic Games occured from July 14th to August 3rd. There were 4,932 participants from 69 different countries. On February 28th, James Watson and Francis Crick made the discovery of the DNA Double Helix. On May 6th, Roger Bannister, a 25-year old man from Britain, completed the mile in exactly 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds in front of about 3,000 fans. After only a year of being built, on July 17th in Anaheim, California, Disneyland, created by Walt Disney, was officially opened with 18 attractions. On January 26th, the United States withdrew themselves from helping the Eygptian construction of the Aswan High Dam, causing the Egyptian President to nationalize the Suez Canal. Soon, countries such as Britain and France began to plan an invasion into Egypt. On March 12th, Dr. Seuss published "The Cat in the Hat", and today over 12 million copies of the precious rhyming children's book have been sold. On October 1st, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was founded, and created achievements and advancements in science and technology. 1956- Ted Williams Hits His 400th Homerun On July 17th, Williams hit his 400th home run of his career, the only run scored in the Red Sox's 1-0 victory over the Kansas City Royals. The 49th and 50th states were added to the union by President Dwight Eisenhower, calling for two more stars to be added to the American Flag. On January 3rd, Alaska was admitted, and on August 21st, Alaska followed suit. -June 25th, 1950 North Korean Communist Party invaded non-Communist South Korea
-American and British Troops were sent in to create resistance against North Korea
-North Koreans continued south, attempting to invade the South Korean port of Pusan
-October, 29th Brigade sent out, reaching Korean right when the war was assumed to be over
-While US, United Nations, and South Korean armies pushed up into North Korea, Chinese armies began to think the US was looking to take the North Korean base, they attacked the US/UN/South Korean armies
-1952, US tried to get the North Koreans to sign a peace treaty by strategically bombing them
-"It was the first military test of the United Nations and also the last martial adventure of the old Commonwealth" (Hickey)
-1953, peace treaty signed at Panmunjom declaring an end to the war
-General MacArthur of the United States forces had hopes to unite Korea, however when the war ended it was the same it had been before the war: one nation split in two by strong tensions Theodor Suess Geisel In 1904, one of the greatest children's writers was born in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts. During his careeer as a writer, he became better known as the legendary Dr. Suess. From "Green Eggs and Ham" to "The Cat in the Hat", his popularity became more and more pronounced. The first book he wrote, "And to Think that I Saw it on Mulberry Street", shows the influence that his society in his hometown of Springfield had on him. The pages are filled with "Springfield imagery, including a look-alike of Mayor Fordis Parker on the reviewing stand, and police officers riding red motorcycles, the traditional color of Springfield's famed Indian Motocycles" (Dr. Seuss Emterprises). Suess attended Dartmouth College, and was an editor of their humor magazine. This magazine had his writings in it, in which he would sign his name "Suess". It was the first time the tag name Suess was used by him. After Dartmouth, Suess headed out to England and attended Oxford, meeting his first wife, but only attending the college for a short amount of time. Instead, he traveled around Europe, and soon returned to the states, where he became a cartoonist. He would do small political cartoons for literary magazines, but when offered the chance to do some illustrations for Viking Press, his work was noticed and he finally published his own first book, "And To Think that I Saw it on Mulberry Street", after having it rejected 27 times by the publishing company, Vanguard Press. "The Cat in the Hat", perhaps Seuss' most popular work as it's been turned into a major motion picture, was published in the 1950's. This book contains only 225 different words, and was both written and illustrated by Seuss himself. Dr. Seuss' impact on society still exists today, as over 200 million copies of his various works have made their way onto bookshelves across the globe. "Don't cry because it's over. Smile because it happened."
Dr. Seuss A Changing World of Art the 50's brought about a brand new form of art called abstract expression. This new form used action painting, a technique of moving around the canvas as one was painting, in addition this new form of art didnt depict a form, but rather was intended to make the veiwer feel a certian way while seeing it. Jackson Pollock, 1948, oil on fabric Barnett Newman Cars for the middle class Previously cars were extremely expensive and only for the very wealthy, but in the 1950's cars become avalitable for the middle class. Cars ran on gassoline, which at that time was inexpensive, and thought to be abundent. The car industry drove the economy of the 50', in these ten years about 6,665,800 cars were sold. The leading companies
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