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From Wartime to Boom Times (1945- 1967)
Transcript of From Wartime to Boom Times (1945- 1967)
From Wartime to
Boom Times (1945-1967)
Technology used during the Cold War
International relations and projects
Avro Arrow & BOMARC Missile
By the end of 1960s, one of Canada’s way to communicate was through using satellites. Canada’s first satellite was called Alouette 1. Canada was the third nation to have a satellite in space and it was the first country to use satellites for communications within its own territory. Alouette was launched in 1962 by the American National Space and Aeronautics Agency (NASA). In 1969 the Parliament created Telesat Canada to promote the development of communications satellites. Alouette 1 size was Approximately 1 meter in Diameter, it weighs 145 kg. Alouette1 proves how Canada was a developed nation. Alouette1 was the first satellite in orbit that was built by a country than US and the Soviet Union. Alouette1 outlasted any satellite of its era. All these facts have proven that Canada was developing fast and smart.
The United Nations
An international organization that joined all the major and powerful nations of the world. The United Nations was created in 1945 and was made up of 50 nations.
The UN wanted to achieve goals that would create world peace. They wanted all the countries that were part of the UN to work together to improve conditions in each nation, end war, and establish human rights. The UN oversees many international organizations that each work towards a different project, but all come together to accomplish world peace. Some of these include UNICEF (created to help children in developing countries), ILO (improves working conditions all over the world), and UNESCO ( improves education systems and standards). Canada played a major role in its creation and participated many of its projects, such as the peacekeeping project in Cyprus. The efforts made by the United Nations have, however been criticized as they have failed to accomplish some of their goals and created in conflicts
Nuclear Arms Race
After the catastrophe in Hiroshima, the Soviet Union and its other allies which included other communist nations in Europe began a race against the United States and its allies which included Canada.This race was made up of quickly producing atomic bombs and other nuclear weapons that could cause huge destruction. None of these weapons were actually used but deterrence was used to discourage their enemies from attacking. This tactic was used by NATO against the Warsaw Pact. The basic idea of this tactic was to have stronger weapons than those of the enemy’s, meaning that they are stronger and could wipe their enemy out if they choose to. This led to the Arms Race as both sides wanted to create more weapons than their enemies. The MAD doctrine assured that both sides have enough weapons to destroy the world. Canada was at a huge risk of getting hit with a nuclear missile, as it was located in the middle their launch site and their target (the United States). This led to the creation of several projects that would protect Canada from a nuclear explosion, if an attack were to occur. These include the Avro Arrow (a jet plane that was later terminated), and the NORAD and Dew lines (used radars that could detect nuclear weapons). In conclusion, if either the Soviet Union or the United States decided to launch their nuclear weapons, world war three would have certainly begun.
A policy created by president Harry Truman and enforced on March 12, 1947 to help any country that is threatened by a Communist revolution. Truman had specifically wanted to send financial and military aid to Greece and Turkey which he believed were at the greatest risk of becoming communist countries. Truman claimed that the policy was to : "to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
Following the creation of NATO in 1946, the American diplomat in Russia- George F. Kennan- sent a telegram stating that the Soviet Union would can only be dealt with the creation of containment. This containment would consist of stopping the expansion of communism by establishing a federation against communism in Europe. This came as a result of the domino theory in which the United States believed that if one country came under the influence of communism, then the rest of the countries around it, would also become communist nations. Kennan’s efforts to stop the spread of communism into other european countries did not go unnoticed by the Secretary of State and was later recognized by president Truman. Kennan’s “long telegram” was used in the implementation of the Truman Doctrine and became an important component in its creation. George Kennan was later appointed to be the ambassador in the Soviet Union but was later exiled after a comment he made that consisted of making connections to the conditions in the Soviet Union to those of Nazi Germany. He remained a powerful critic in American politics and American relations until his death in 2005 at the age of 101.
Organization of American States
The OAS is an international organization that was founded in 1948 to tie American states together and create peace and solidarity. The organization includes 35 independent countries in the Americas that come together to negotiate how to make living conditions in each country better and safer. They focus greatly on democracy and how to prevent issues from occurring. Their main objectives revolve around democracy, human rights, development, and security. Canada became an official member of the OAS in 1990. To this day, Canada’s contribution consisted of helping with the creation of a Democratic charter, a security framework for the Americas, and has pushed for democratic principles within the area.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created in April 4, 1949 as a project that would stop the threat of communism developed by the Soviet Union. NATO was also created to preventing nationalist militarism from spreading in European countries, by enforcing North American support. The 12 founding members of NATOincluded: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries had a pact that decreed that if a member of NATO was attacked, then all the members would work to defend the attacked country. With the occurrence of the Korean war, the members of NATO decided that they needed a stronger army to fight the growing wave of communism. This led to the creation of an integrated military force led by US president Dwight D. Eisenhower. Canada sent more than 15,000 troops overseas to Europe. Nevertheless, NATO was still outnumbered by the military troops that belonged to the Soviet Nations. NATO then relied on deterrence by building more nuclear weapons than the Soviet Union. This would discourage the Soviet Union from launching their nuclear weapons. By the 1960s, many Canadians including prime minister Lester B. Pearson, were skeptical about the effectiveness of NATO as the Soviet Union continued to create more nuclear weapons and American influence on the organization was huge. Though NATO had come close to failing its project and not lived up to its expectations, NATO has been involved in projects that include negotiations between countries to ensure security in the country.
CHC2D Canadian History
January 6, 2014
By: Taqwa Darwaish, Jemima Cruz
and Ibtissam Boudi.
Television was first invented in the 1920s. In the 1950s about 1,000,000 television sets were bought by Canadians although they were expensive (about $650) and the average monthly wage was only about $200. Television was introduced in the market in the late 1940s and were highly sought after. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) had set up stations all over Canada, allowing them to have the largest television transmission system in the world, stretching 6,400km by 1958. In the 1960s many families were able to afford televisions and watching television became a favorite activity. The 110 stations in Canada, operated in 87% of all Canadian households with televisions. Programs included a combination of mainly American shows and increasingly popular Canadian programs. The CBC had brought together different parts of Canada and taught Canadians about different lifestyles and customs. It was however very stereotypical programming that showed only conflict free, white families. Television also influenced lifestyles, furniture had to be rearranged, dinner times rescheduled, bedtimes were adjusted for Saturday Night Live, and businesses such as movie houses, sports stadiums, and newspapers quickly lost their appeal. New products such as frozen TV dinners were introduced and could be quickly prepared and eaten in front of the television.
August 16, 1945
Nuclear arms race
(August 16, 1945)
(October 24, 1945)
Canadian Citizenship Act
( January 1, 1947)
(March 12, 1947)
(April 30, 1948)
(April 4, 1949)
NORAD & DEW line
(February 15, 1954)
October 24, 1945
(October 4, 1957)
Avro Arrow & BOMARC Missile
( March 25, 1958)
(September 29, 1962)
(January 16, 1965)
(April 27, 1967)
Canadian Citizenship Act ( January 1, 1947)
The earliest forms of automobiles date back to the late 1800's. When mass production came into being, cars were being created very quickly and in large amounts. Nevertheless, with the occurrence of the Great Depression, few people could afford these cars that were very slow and unreliable. After the Second World War however, the car industry boomed and nearly every Canadian family owned a car. More adjustments were made to society to make it more "car-friendly". These included the creation of highways and roads that connected the new suburbs to the city, and drive through services for restaurants. Because most of these cars were made by American companies, the Canadian government introduced the Auto Pact which enabled car manufacturers in Canada to profit from the sales in the United States.
1945 - 1954
It is a term describing the international relations between the democratic countries of the West and the Communist countries of the East from 1945 until 1989. The term "Cold War" first appeared in a 1945 essay by the writer George Orwell called "You & the Atomic Bomb" after that everyone started using that term to describe it. It was named The Cold War because it was a war of words, propaganda and economic pressure between the western democracies and the Soviet Union. The United States was the most powerful country in the Western bloc. The USSR was the most powerful in the Eastern bloc. It was all influenced by the tension between the East and the West. The West feared that the Soviet Union would add more countries to in Europe and impose their political system on them. The Soviet Union feared the intentions of the West. America and the Soviet Union raced to develop new weapons of destruction. In 1952 America exploded the first hydrogen bomb and in 1957 the Soviets launched the World’s first space ship. The fear of a nuclear war was going to happen at any given moment. Canada and the U.S relationship became very close in the 1950s because they were defending North America. The Cold War made Canadians nervous and fearful. The Cold War effected Canada in all aspects and the number one reason for that is that Canada is America’s neighbor. Canada was very delighted when the Cold War ended.
1945 - 1989
The first artificial satellite launched in space. This event sparked fear, intimidation, and tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. The satellite was launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 as a result of the proposal by the International Council of Scientific Unions that stated that it encourages the launch of an artificial satellite to map Earth’s surface. The United States had proposed that they were going to launch a satellite that would be created with with the help of research agencies. The launch of
took everyone by surprise and made the American citizens question what else the USSR was capable of doing. They believed that the Soviet Union may be able to send missiles carrying nuclear weapons that could destroy the U.S. In response to the launch, the American government started to fund another project that was called the Explorer. The Soviet Union then launched
II which carried a heavier load and a dog in November of the same year. The United States then overcame this innovation and sent the Explorer on January 31, 1958 with a shuttle that discovered the magnetic radiation belts around the Earth. The launch of
had disrupted the nuclear missile projects that were being run by Canada and the United States. This includes the Avro Arrow project run by Canada, and consisted of developing jet planes (called interceptors) that could shoot down an enemy plane before it launched a nuclear bomb. When
was launched, it defeated the purpose of the Avro Arrow and similar projects because the Soviet Union was capable of equipping its rockets with nuclear weapons that could be dropped from space and there would be no resistance. The launch of
however, led to an unexpected turn in the “Space Race” and helped create NASA.
October 4, 1957
September 1945, a young Russian named Igor Gouzenko walked into the newsroom of the Ottawa Citizen and announced he had proof of a widespread Soviet spy ring operating in Canada.
Wake Up Call
Suez Canal Crisis
Canada proposed international peacekeeping force to stabilize the situation in Egypt while Britain and France withdrew their forces.
Before 1947 there was nothing called a Canadian Citizen. Native born Canadians and immigrants living in Canada for more than 5 years without criminal records (naturalized immigrants) were considered a British subject. The Citizenship Act of 1947 stated Canadian citizenship on all of the Canadians born residents and naturalized immigrants. Women’s citizenship status also changed after the act. Women for the first time in history their status is not dependent on that of their husbands. The Citizenship Act offered women freedom and power. The Act also shaped and established a Canadian identity.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was created as a federal agency in 1952. Its focus was on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes such as nuclear reactors for energy production and the cobalt bomb for the radiation treatment of cancer. It took control of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories from the National Research Council. One of AECL’s famous projects was the development of the Canadian deuterium uranium nuclear reactor (CANDU). AECL is Canada's biggest nuclear science and technology laboratory. AECL was also involved in the development of associated technology such as the UTEC computer that was built at the University of Toronto in the early 1950s. AECL has an important role in nuclear matters, providing advice, counsel and service as an agent of the federal government up to this date. AECL job is to ensure that Canadians and the rest of the world receive energy, health, environmental and economic benefits from nuclear science and technology with safety and security.
NORAD & DEW line (February 15, 1954)
One of the major fears in the Cold War was the Soviet bombers and nuclear missiles crossing the Arctic toward North America. Canada and the United States created “NORAD”, the North American Aerospace Defense Command and its job was to have eyes sweeping North America from any danger. The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line began on 15 February 1954. DEW was built in the Cold War as the primary air defense warning line in case of an attack on North America. To give a warning of an enemy attack the DEW line was established across Canada, Greenland, and Alaska. The DEW line consisted of radar stations with radar coverage and the ability to detect aircraft and missiles within their areas.
It was named the "Cold War" because it was a war of words, propaganda and economic pressure between the western democracies and the Soviet Union. It was not called the "Cold War" because of the weather.
One of Canada’s cold war projects was the Avro Arrow. Avro Arrow was a military aircraft that was developed entirely in Canada and its cost was over $400 million. Canada made it to defend Canada against attack from the Soviet Union. It was suggested that the Arrow was one of the fastest and most sophisticated fighter planes in the world. In 1958, Canada signed a defense production sharing agreement with the United States. Canada agreed to buy American-made Bomarc missiles to defend the Canadian skies. Prime Minister John Diefenbaker canceled the Avro Arrow project after one year from the agreement. All parts of the Arrow project were destroyed. About 13 000 people lost their jobs; some of the workers who wanted to work in the same aircraft/aerospace field moved to the United States. Canada decided that the Avro was too costly and unable to effectively meet Canada’s security needs and that's why the abandoned it. Canada bought the Bomarc missiles without a nuclear warhead ; that was a waste of money and technology and there was o point of the Bomarc missiles without the nuclear warheads.
Approximately 1 meter in Diameter
1000 km 80 degree inclined orbit
First satellite in orbit that was built by a country other than the Soviet Union or the US
Outlasted any satellite of its era
September 29, 1962
March 12, 1947
The Auto Pact
Suez Crisis happened in the Middle East, with President Nasser of Egypt who had decided to take control the Suez Canal. This canal was narrow and was a artificial waterway. And this canal was the busiest waterway in the world at that time. This water way was a connection to the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. Later in a couple months Britain, France and also Israel found out what had happened, but that isn't a surprise. And they had decided to regain control of the Canal, and begun to attack Egypt. But not long after that the Soviet Union decide to support Egypt. They realized that when the Soviet were involved that it was going to be a potential war, at hand. But it did not happen because of Lester Person suggestion that prevented it from happening.
Lester B. Pearson was the 14th prime minister of Canada who had won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.
UNEF which stands for United Nations Emergency Force was to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis
The invention of peacekeeping was to cause minimum damage and life loss if any situation happen to a rise that would cause a threat. And to promote this peace keeping that had the Nobel Peace Prize that was awarded internationally and given by the Nobel Foundation, but these awarded would only be given to the people who had outstanding achievements in the promotion of peace.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Front de libération du Québec
Royal Commission on the Artslism and Biculturalism
The Creation of Peace
Lester B. Pearson
On January 16, 1965, the Canadian prime minister- Lester Pearson- signed an agreement with the President Lyndon Johnson of the United States that benefited the Canadian economy. The Auto Pact is referred to as " arguably the most successful trade agreement signed on any product between any two countries in the world," by auto analyst Dennis DesRosiers. Most cars purchased in the 1960s were manufactured in the U.S, this meant that Canada had a bigger trade deficit, as there were more imports than exports. The Auto Pact removed tariffs that the American car companies were paying to Canada. The Auto Pact enabled car production costs in Canada to be lowered and increased employment in the factories. If Canadians purchased an American car, the United States had to also purchase cars or car parts made in Canada. Most of these cars were sold to people in the U.S or Mexico. This benefited both the Canadian car companies and the American ones.
In 1962, Canada imported
million in cars from the U.S but, exported
The "Big Three" were the largest manufacturers of cars
In 1986, the number of employees in the car industry doubled from 70 000 (in 1965) to 140 000
January 16, 1965
First artificial satellite. It was 58 cm in diameter
UN headquarters in Brussels, Belgium
, written by Kennan in 1947
George Kennan former ambassador of the United States in Russia. He is the author of the "long-telegram" (X Article) which described the need for containment.
April 4, 1949
"The Lone-Ranger" a popular American program in the 1950s
The "Front Page Challenge" a popular Canadian program
Cars were used by almost all Canadians
April 30, 1948
Expo 67 was a huge success. It changed the world's view of Canada, and more importantly, it changed our view of ourselves. Expo brought us together for the first time in mutual pride and appreciation for our talents and accomplishments. "Man and his World" was the official title. It was one of the most successful international exhibitions of the 20th Century; Expo 67 gave Montréal the opportunity to show itself as an international city and proved once and for all that Canada had accomplishments. The choice of the islands in the St. Lawrence River for the location also carried historical significance for Canada; the St. Lawrence symbolizes the link between Canada and the world. It was Category One World’s Fair and it was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was from April 27 to October 29, 1967. On its third day 569,500 visitors attended it.
Historically, the CCF and NDP fought for social security programs. The World Fair, Expo 63 that was held in Montreal during Canada’s centennial year, it attracted people and citizens from all around the world. The president of France gave a speech applauding and supporting Quebec in the Fair during his visit to Canada on July 24, 1967. A problem occurred at the end of his speech when said “Vive Montréal, Vive le Québec; Vive le Quebec, vive le Quebec libre” ("Long live Montreal, Long live Quebec; Long live free Quebec”). This phrase is used by the citizens who favoured Quebec Sovereignty and when de Gaulle used the phrase it seemed to be supporting separatism in Quebec. The speech sparked a diplomatic incident with Canada's government. The speech had a lot of media interest. After de Gaulle heard Prime Minister Pearson’s angry reaction to the speech, de Gaulle returned to France.
CCF & NDP (Charles de Gaulle & “Vive le Quebec, vive le Quebec libre!)
Because of separation and wartime uncertainty had caused many couples to postpone having children and raising a family. When the war was over, Canada enjoyed a baby boom that lasted into the 1960s. In 1959 one out of five women aged 20 to 29 gave birth. Canada’s population increased rapidly. In 1946 Canada’s population was 12 000 000 and it increased to 18 000 000 in 1961. These Children that were born at that period were called baby boomers. Youth culture in 1950s and 1960s was music. In the 1950s, it was rock’n’roll. American television were brought into the living rooms of the Canadians. Radio stations played top 40 rock hits. Most of the rock'n'roll stars were American, but Canadian performers were big stars too. In the 1960s music was influenced both by California psychedelic and the “British invasion.” The Band had a number of hits. The music of the 1950s and the 1960s was associated with young people. 1950s beat rock'n'roll was alien to parents. The music in 1960s was all about free speech, free love, and references to drugs. Some music was called protest music and it was against pollution, materialism, and the Vietnam War.
Baby Boom & rock’n’roll
Happened on October 1962. this begun because there was a American spy plane that had secretly got a photo of a nuclear missile. And the American President knew of this, but didn't want that Cuba and the Soviet Union to know of what had been discovered. But eventually it was discovered and the revolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis happened. And to resolve everything President Kennedy explained what had happened, and in this explanation everything was told publicly and was aired.
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (1967) was Appointed by Lester B. Pearson in 1963 to make the languages French and English used equally. Pearson saw that there were language barriers and strong nationalist feelings that separated them. Despite the efforts, opposition from Quebec grew and the want to be separate from the rest of the Canada. The finally the finial decidion was published in 1969 when French was made an official language in Canada and government services were offered in both French and English.
The Royal Commission of the Arts and Science was made for the reason of that the government had realized that culture was growing immensely that that decided to establish this building to be able to support theses culture financial, and also support the artistes and scientists . And them by doing so that created so many stars that went down in history like for example Elves Presley.