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Deodorants, polymers and plastics

Composition, uses, risks and environmental effects.

Aniie Guajardo

on 5 September 2012

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Transcript of Deodorants, polymers and plastics

Composition, uses, risks and environmental effects Deodorants, polymers
and plastics. Ingredients Deodorants Deodorants and antiperspirants are dissolved
frequently in alcohol because it dries quickly after extend it over the skin and gives a fresh sensation.

Sometimes it causes a greasy sensation after perspire. The silica is a natural mineral used with
the purpose of dry the grease. RISKS A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminum and may experience contact dermatitis when exposed to deodorants containing aluminum.

After using a deodorant containing zirconium, the skin may develop an allergic, axillary granuloma response.

Deodorant crystals containing synthetically made potassium alum were found to be a weak irritant to the skin.

According to New Scientists' Magazine,
antiperspirants can cause breast cancer
and Alzheimer's disease. Antiperspirants are typically applied to the underarms, while deodorants may also be used on feet and other areas in the form of body sprays. Antiperspirant is used to avoid that sweat or toxins get out of the body; on the other hand, deodorants are used to give good smell to the sweat. USES When triclosan washes off our bodies and down the drain, some of it ends up in surface water. There's evidence to suggest that, at current levels, it may be toxic to some aquatic organisms or have impacts on their endocrine systems.

Sprays are the worst choice from an
air pollution standpoint. These products have the
highest amount of volatile organic
compounds, which contribute to the
formation of ground-level ozone ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS A polymer is composed of many simple molecules that are repeating structural units called monomers. A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure. POLYMERS USES Polymer Applications Polyvinyl Chloride
(PVC) Plastic pipes, meat wrap, upholstery,
rainwear, house siding, garden hose. Polyacrylonitrile Fabrics for clothing and upholstery, carpet. Polyvinylidene
chloride Food wrap Polymethyl
methacrylate "Nonbreakable" (acrylic glass) windows, inexpensive lenses, art objects. Polypropylene
(PP) Beverage containers, rope, netting, kitchen appliances. Polystyrene (PS) and
styrene plastic Foam packing and insulation, plant pots, disponsable food containers, model kits. Polyethylene
terephthalate. (PET) Soft-drink bottles, tire cord, clothing, recording tape, replacements for blood vessels. Polyurethane Foam furniture cushions, waterproof
coatings, parts of shoes. Polycarbonate Chairs, used as sheets in houses to
avoid the heat, in domes. •Vinyl chloride, used in PVC (confirmed carcinogen)
•Styrene, used in polystyrene (possible carcinogen)
•Toluene diisocyanate, used in polyurethane (possible carcinogen, known acute toxicity)
•Methyl methacrylate, used in acrylic resins and fibers (possible reproductive toxin)
•Acrylonitrile, used in acrylic resins and fibers (probable human carcinogen) RISKS Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances (Plasticizer) to improve performance or reduce costs. PLASTICS When you burn plastics which are made from polymers -- that are synthesized from waste from processing fuels like gasoline from crude oil -- it creates pollution which produces CO2 which contributes to global warming. Also plastics are non biodegradable. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Shopping (Plastic Bags)
Plastics help make portable phones and computers that really are portable. They help make major appliances - such as refrigerators or dishwashers - resist corrosion, last longer and operate more efficiently.
Home constructions (lower your heating and cooling bills) USES Intoxication because plastic is made by petroleum.
Plasticizers in particular have been implicated in human health and environmental impacts by their action as endocrine mimics and reproductive toxins

•Direct toxicity, as in the cases of lead, cadmium, and mercury
•Carcinogens, as in the case of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)
•Endocrine disruption, which can lead to
cancers, birth defects, immune system
supression and developmental problems
in children. RISKS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Aluminium, present most often in antiperspirants, has been established as a neurotoxin. At high doses, aluminium itself adversely affects the blood–brain barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has adverse epigenetic effects.

"People with renal dysfunction may not be aware that the daily use of antiperspirant drug products containing aluminum may put them at a higher risk because of exposure to aluminum in the product. Covalent bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers. Types of Polymers NATURAL SYNTHETIC synthetic rubber Bakelite Neoprene Shellac Amber Wool PVC Polystyrene Nylon Silk Natural Rubber Cellulose silicone Polyethylene Polypropylene Most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well.
The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone. The structure of these "side chains" influence the properties of the polymer Composition Motivated by the finiteness of petrochemical reserves and possibility of global warming, bioplastics are being developed.
Bioplastics are made substantially from renewable plant materials such as cellulose and starch Common Uses Health Effects Polyvinyl chloride
(PVC) Food packaging, plastic wrap, containers for toiletries, cosmetics, crib bumpers, floor tiles, pacifiers, shower curtains, toys, water pipes, garden hoses, auto upholstery, inflatable swimming pools Can cause cancer, birth defects, genetic changes, chronic bronchitis, ulcers, skin diseases, deafness, vision failure, indigestion, and liver dysfunction Phthalates(DEHP,DINP,
and others) Softened vinyl products manufactured with phthalates include vinyl clothing, emulsion paint, footwear, printing inks, non-mouthing toys and children’s products, product packaging and food wrap, vinyl flooring, blood bags and tubing, IV containers and components, surgical gloves, breathing tubes, general purpose lab ware, inhalation masks, many other medical devices Endocrine disruption, linked to asthma, developmental and reproductive effects. Medical waste with PVC and pthalates is regularly incinerated causing public health effects from the release of dioxins and mercury, including cancer, birth defects, hormonal changes, declining sperm counts, infertility, endometriosis, and immune system impairment. Polycarbonate, with Bisphenol A (#7) Water bottles Scientists have linked very low doses of bisphenol A exposure to cancers, impaired immune function, early onset of puberty, obesity, diabetes, and hyperactivity, among other problems (Environment California) Polystyrene
(PS) Many food containers for meats, fish, cheeses, yogurt, foam and clear clam shell containers, foam and rigid plates, clear bakery containers, packaging "peanuts", foam packaging, audio cassette housings, CD cases, disposable cutlery, building insulation, flotation devices, ice buckets, wall tile, paints, serving trays, throw-away hot drink cups, toys Can irritate eyes, nose and throat and can cause dizziness and unconsciousness. Migrates into food and stores in body fat. Elevated rates of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers for workers. Polyethelyne
(#1 PET) Water and soda bottles, carpet fiber, chewing gum, coffee stirrers, drinking glasses, food containers and wrappers, heat-sealed plastic packaging, kitchenware, plastic bags, squeeze bottles, toys Suspected human carcinogen Polyester Bedding, clothing, disposable diapers, food packaging, tampons, upholstery Can cause eye and respiratory-tract irritation and acute skin rashes Urea-
formaldehyde Particle board, plywood, building insulation, fabric finishes Formaldehyde is a suspected carcinogen and has been shown to cause birth defects and genetic changes. Inhaling formaldehyde can cause cough, swelling of the throat, watery eyes, breathing problems, headaches, rashes, tiredness Polyurethane
Foam Acrylic Tetrafluoro-
ethelyne Cushions, mattresses, pillows Bronchitis, coughing, skin and eye problems. Can release toluene diisocyanate which can produce severe lung problems Clothing, blankets, carpets made from acrylic fibers, adhesives, contact lenses, dentures, floor waxes, food preparation equipment, disposable diapers, sanitary napkins, paints Can cause breathing difficulties, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, weakness, headache and fatigue Non-stick coating on cookware, clothes irons, ironing board covers, plumbing and tools Can irritate eyes, nose and throat and can cause breathing difficulties Process of blocking sweat Butane
Alcohol Denat
Propylene Glycol
Triethyl Citrate
Amyl Cinnamal
Benzyl Salicylate
Citronellol Antiperspirants Ingredients Elaeis Guineesis (Palm)
Kerner Oil
Aluminum Zirconium Tetrachlorohydrex GYL
C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
Synthetic Wax
PEG- 8 distaerate
Hydrogenated Soybean Oil
Pentaerythirthyl Tetra-di-t-butyl Hydroxyhydrocinnamate
Citric acid
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