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Transcript of Self-Directed Learning
Goals of Self-Directed Learning
Self-Directed Learning as a Process
Proposed by Tough and Knowles linear in nature because learner has to move through a series of steps to reach the learning goal in a SD manner. Includes many elements of traditional teaching.
Tough proposed the first comprehensive description of SDL which was termed Self- Planned Learning. From a study of 66 people from Ontario, found 70% of projects were planned by learners themselves.
Tough found that learners use 13 steps representing key decision making choosing when and where and what , resources, barriers, etc.
Tough ‘s research became the basis for many research studies around the word. Everyone used original or modified interview schedule.
Knowles SDL has 6 steps: climate setting, diagnosing learning needs, (page 111)
Learning is not linear, but opportunities people find in their environment, personality characteristics, cognitive process and context of learning.
Self-Direction As A Personal Attribute of Learners
One of Knowles (1980) andragogy assumptions states "adults have a deep psychological need to be generally self-directing."
Researchers are trying to gain an understanding of the typical self-directed learner's characteristics or attributes.
Mitra's SDLRS Results
Oddi Continuing Learning Inventory
that measures one's self-directedness as a personality trait (Oddi, 1986)
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale
measures readiness for self-directed learning as initiative, independence, and persistence in learning; acceptance of responsibility for one's own learning; self-discipline; curiosity; ability to learn independently; enjoyment of learning; goal oriented; and view problems as challenges rather than obstacles (Guglielmino, 1997)
Autonomy and Self-Directedness
Recent Applications of SDL and
Building Research and Theory
Scenario: Learning Technology
This scenario is based on Malcolm Knowles Theory on Self-Directed Learning
260 - High
While we have always learned on our own as adults,
serious study of SDL is recent due to:
SDL happening outside of formal institutional settings
SDL is so embedded in people's everyday lives as to be invisible!
Are we cutting our own
business as educators if we acknowledge that many can
learn without our assistance?
Are you thinking what I'm thinking? hmm.....
Stemmed from work of Knowles (1980) and Tough (1979)
Help learners to plan, carry out and evaluate their own learning
Grounded primarily in humanistic philosophy of personal growth as the goal of adult learning
Only by accepting responsibility for one's own learning is it possible to take a proactive approach to the learning process
Accepting responsibility, personal autonomy, free will to make choices
For Mezirow, the key to SDL is becoming critically aware of what has been taken for granted about one's own learning
Brookfield echos Mezirow’s idea: the most complete form of SDL occurs when process and reflection are married in the adult’s pursuit of meaning with Critical reflection
Writers of this goal are critics of goal #1 saying it’s too narrow. They want incorporation of collective action as an outcome.
SDL is merely a technique “to condition the individual into taken-for-granted acceptance of what is offered.” (Collins, 1996, p.115)
Collins thinks that participatory research methods should foster democratic and open dialogue about SDL, along with ethical and political concerns about SDL should be a part of this dialogue.
Introduction to Self-Directed Learning
International Society For Self-Directed Learners
This resource has a large global society, published journals,
and symposiums for all
Looks like we
just missed the
Enhance the ability of adult learner to be Self-Directed in learning
To foster transformational learning as central to Self-Directed Learning
Promote emancipatory learning & social action as an integral part of Self-Directed Learning
High-five for anyone who can find a picture of Collins!
Spears Model, 1988
Brockett and Hiemstra’s Model, 1991
Garrison’s Model, 1997
Sets or clusters of the following elements:
Opportunities people find in their environment
Past or new knowledge
Family moves from an apartment to a single-family residence which creates an opportunity to pursue gardening.
Their Personal Responsibility Orientation (PRO) model comprises "both instructional method processes (self-directed learning) and personality characteristics of the individual learner (learner self-direction)".
Source: Garrison, 1997, p.22.
In a case study
Wright Brothers learn to fly,
identified 5 stages:
Danis, 1992 takes into account the context and potential of self-taught groups of learners.
Rager, 2003 studied self-directed learning of women with breast cancer (importance of context).
Valente, 2005 studied older adults who manage their own healthcare. "Once a health
event is diagnosed, the cycle
of self-directed learning begins".
Roberson & Merriam, 2005 studied rural older adults.
The process begins with an incentive related to late life changes in family or health.
Instructional Model - Hammond & Collins (1991)
Only model that addresses the goal of promoting emancipatory learning and social action.
Learners take initiative for:
Building a cooperative learning environment
Analyzing & critically reflecting on themselves and the social, economic, and political contexts in which they are situated
Generating competency profiles for themselves
Diagnosing their learning needs within the framework of both the personal and social context
Formulating socially and personally relevant learning goals that result in learning agreements
Implementing and managing their learning
Reflecting on and evaluating their learning.
"Ultimate goal is to empower learners to use their learning to improve the conditions under which they and those around them live and work." (1991, p.14)
Jennifer's SDLRS Results
220 - Moderate
I scored 260, in the High level of Self- directedness in learning that indicates effective SDL. It looks like my awareness and evaluation needs improvement and I am strongest in Interpersonal skills.
I scored 220, in Moderate level. This scoring range is half way to becoming a self-directed learner. I had a low score of 41 for Learning activities and Evaluation which will be the areas to improve on effective self-directed learning.
Want to know how you will score on the SDLRS?
Go to: Week 6 (Module 5)
Self-directed Learning Scale
Characteristics of an Autonomous Learner (Chene, 1983)
Autonomy is Context Related
Are you an Autonomous Learner?
Importance of Autonomy and Homonomy
Ability to make choices and critical judgements
Capacity to articulate the norms and limits of a learning society
People with strong sense of personal values and beliefs (Candy, 1991)
Independent thinking, self-responsibility, and control over actions of learning (Brockett and Hiemstra (1991), Garrison (1992), and Tennant and Pogson (1995)).
Do you have related technical skills?
Are you familiar with the subject matter?
Do you have a sense of personal competence as a learner?
Are you committed to learn at this point of time?
Self-directing people might become "temporarily dependent" in a learning situation.
Example: During a flood or an earthquake, people may need to rely on direction from others, during and after the event (pg. 123)
Importance of teamwork and shared resources
"Without being interdependent passes for immaturity or self-centeredness" (Nah, 2000)
Human Resource Development (HRD)
Formal training is only the beginning. Knowledge is accumulating at a very fast rate that one must continue to be effective (Williams, 2001).
Schools from primary through university must develop the conditions, foundations, and motivations for people to see learning as their responsibility; because educational systems cannot hand the knowledge to the next generation (Schrader - Naef, 2000).
Most professions mandate continued learning to keep licenses to practice.
Dunlap & Grabinger, 2003 found 3 teaching strategies for SDL:
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
Intentional Learning Environments
Bolhuis, 2003 work is process-oriented teaching for Self-Directed Lifelong Learning. Since learning is a social phenomenon,
even in SDL we need to consider how the social context, prior knowledge, and emotional aspects of learning foster self-directed lifelong learning.
Human Resource Development (HRD)
Links between SDL and HRD is by Ellinger, 2004. She concludes a number of suggestions for research and theory in this area, such as assessing the prevalence of SDL in the workplace, how it's linked with organizational learning, the cultural and ethical issues involved.
Clardy, 2000 studied job-related self-directed learning projects of 56 employees from 5 organizations. The study included 3 types of projects
The organization using synergistic and voluntary projects the most "used a system of organizational practices that formed a culture of learning".
Many studies of online learning at least acknowledge if not foster the need for
self-direction on the part of learners in
Freed, 2003 examined how graduate students in an online discussion used reflection, dialog, and
Pachnowski & Jurczyk, 2000 attempted to correlate self-directed learning readiness with student success as measured by grades in Web-based courses.
Presented By: Mitra Foroodi and Jennifer Hudson
A Self Directed Learning Scenario. (n.d.). A Self Directed Learning Scenario.
Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://www.slideshare.net/carla-kaiser/a-self-directed-learning-scenario
International Society for Self-Directed Learning - Home Page. (n.d.). International Society for Self-Directed Learning - Home Page.
Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://sdlglobal.com/
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
RealSchool Blog. (n.d.). : Getting Started in Self-Directed Learning. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from