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Evolution~

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by

Melanie Wang

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of Evolution~

BY: Melanie, Sonia, Casey, Gloria
Evolution
Embryology
- The science dealing with the formation, development, structure, and functional activates of embryo.

-An embryologist works with sperm, eggs, and embryos.
Molecular
Biology
Molecular Biology is the study of genes and their
control in expression in cellular and organismic
structure. Molecular Biology is on of the basic forms of evolution and adaption.
Paleontology
The scientific study of fossils.
Anatomy
Melanie Wang
-The structure of an organism or one of its parts.

-The science that studies those structures.
What is Evolution?
Evolution is the change in a lineage of populations between generations
Lets Start~~~~
Casey Moss
Some examples are......
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Gene Expression
Molecular Clocks
Evolutionary Selection
DNA Sequencing
-> Homologous Structures: The bones in the forelimbs of some terrestrial and aquatic animals are really similar because they all evolved from a common ancestor.
Paleontologists have recently found more proof of evolution from shallow water fish.
The bones in their fins were more complex and stronger than other species. This gave them the advantages to swim through small plant paths.
The paleontologists also noticed the shallow water fish had lungs as well as gills.
After more research, they concluded that shallow water fish used to have four legs and traveled on land.
These shallow water fish have adapted from walking on land to swimming in the sea.
Starting the same

* The study of the form, shape, and structure of organisms and specific structural features.

*Deals with structures and their relationships with each other

* Anatomy is a part (branch) of Morphology.
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Comparative Anatomy
1. Homologous Structure: Structures that are similar in different species because the species have a common ancestors, those structures might NOT have the same functions.

2. Analogous Structures: Structures similar in different organisms because they evolved in a similar environment, but not from common ancestors.They usually serve the same or similar purposes.
Porpoises
and
Sharks
An example of Analogous Structure is the torpedo body shape of porpoises and sharks. So even though they evolved from very different ancestors, porpoises and sharks developed analogous structures as a result of their evolution in the same aquatic environment.
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Their beaks adapt to the environment, when their food , which are flowers , are longer and deeper, they might develop a longer beak in order to survive. The other way around, if the flowers around them are short and stubby, they would evolve shorter beaks in order to adapt and survive.
Short Beaks
Long Beaks
&
Fins & Wings
The forelimbs of cats, bats, whales, and humans are all very similar for they consist of all the same basic parts, but they serve completely different functions. The skeletal structure of fins would not be ideal for wings, because they are more suited for being air-born.
Fins
Wings
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Cats
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* Anatomy shows how organisms transitioned. Evidence from comparative anatomy shows that various organisms share a common ancestor
* Through random mutations and natural selection the anatomical structures of the animal gradually becomes better adapted to every organism's habitat and environment.
*Their physical structures are evolving due to what the environment is presenting them with. Then slowly and gradually, they create a whole new "species".
Gloria Williams
Sonia Hundal
* Dolphins are more closely related to humans than they are to sharks. Their bodies evolved to adapt with the aquatic environment.
THE END~~~
All embryos that are vertebrate follow a path similar to each other. It is due to their common ancestry. They all have similar genes that build basic body shape.
Common past, Changing paths
Evolution is the change in a organism over time. Evolution made the body shapes for all animals. the further the development, the more individual it gets.
See how they all start out the looking the same?
What is an embryo?
An embryo is the early stage of an animal development that begins after the division of the joined egg and sperm.
Molecular clocks are based on DNA Sequencing, but uses fossils to trace back the geologic history of the artifact. It is also used to determine the time of events. Over millions of years mutations may build up in the DNA, and cause the trait to evolve, which are passed down from generation to generation. For example, snakes. They have been around since the Cretaceous period (about 146 million years ago). The have evolved for very large reptiles like the Pachyrhachis, to the average garden snake.
DNA Sequencing is the terminology of unraveling the past of someone/something's past. For example, a family tree. Your great grandparents may have had 7 children, and out of those seven, six of them married. The six children are your grandparents, and each one of your grandparents had three children of their own, one of which is your mother or father. The sisters/brothers or your mother/father are your uncles and aunts. This can also be determined for traits, sex-linked traits, or diseases.
Molecular Biology was a big part in Charles Darwin's studies. When he traveled to the Galapagos Islands, he studied finches. Just like the lab we did last week, we studied which type of bird beaks would most likely survive. Finches with different type of beaks all come from one finch. The finches may have had to adapt to different environments in order to survive, and that may be the conclusion on why they have different beaks.
Gene expression in when the information of a gene is used during the making of a functional gene product. Gene expression is much like an enzyme. It helps produce rRNA and tRNA, the basics for RNA replication. It is also used in prokaryote and eukaryote cells.
Look familiar?
Up to 78 feet long!
Up to less than a foot long...
They swim in a side-to-side fashion
Porpoises swim in an up-and-down fashion
What is a Paleontologist?
A scientist who studies fossils to learn about ancient organisms.
Usually travel various areas to compare organisms.
Support of Evolution
EXAMPLES...
Over a period of time, scientists study fossil records of organisms to discover the changes they have experienced.
Paleontology gives evidence towards evolution by the physical features on the fossils.
Scientists can see the physical changes and levels of natural selection the organism encounters to survive in their own environment.
EXAMPLES...
EXAMPLES...
EXAMPLES...
In 1979, paleontologists had their first evidence to a whale transition.
Scientists had found fossils of whales with four legs from India, Egypt, Pakistan, and the U.S.
It took about 15 million years for the transformation of whales living on land to in the water.
Many fossils changed including: the fins, ears, and breathing apparatus.
Although the whale's transition changed how the organism lives, whales are still mammals. Inside each flipper is a mammalian hand.
WHALE EVOLUTION
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Millions of years ago, paleontologists found fossils of birds with not two wings, but four.
The wings must of changed to fit their environment better.
Scientists believe the birds adapted because having two pairs of wings used more energy for the bird.
A bird with one pair of wings loses less energy; therefore more efficient.
Just recently, about a year ago, paleontologists found a human foot fossil in Ethiopia.
After observing the fossil, scientists concluded that the foot's toes were much longer than the average toes today. Also, the big toe stuck out and was much bigger and longer than the other toes.
Paleontologists believe humans' toes were long because they climbed a lot.
Over billions of years, humans' toes have adapted so the toes have shrunk and the big toe has changed inward direction toward the other toes.
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