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How physical education and outdoor and adventurous activities can provide a positive learning environment for young people that promotes social and emotional development.

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Niamh Marley

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of How physical education and outdoor and adventurous activities can provide a positive learning environment for young people that promotes social and emotional development.

P.E. and OAA Physical Education How OAA develops social and emotional skills A physically educated person has learned skills necessary to perform a variety of activities

Moves using concepts of body awareness, space awareness, effort and relationships
Demonstrates competence in a variety of manipulative, loco motor and non-loco motor skills
Demonstrates competence in many forms of physical activity
Demonstrates proficiency in a few forms of physical activity
Has learned how to learn new skills
(Graham, 2008)

Outdoor and adventurous activities develops mental determination by overcoming a problematic set of circumstances, pupils can develop their mental capacity; this in turn can foster pupil attitudes regarding their own physical and mental limits.
(Stidder and Hayes, 2011) Outdoor and Adventurous Activities Outdoor and Adventurous Activities develop feelings of success, pride and self-respect which all contribute to a pupils overall learning and achievement.
(Stidder and Hayes 2011) How OAA develops social and emotional skills To provide children with challenges of a problem solving nature, which bring about confidence, satisfaction and success
To introduce children to different environments
To explore other areas of the curriculum through the medium of outdoor activities
To give children strategies for developing personal skills and interests
To give the children the opportunity to learn through fun activities
To develop positive attitudes in children
To build upon qualities of sharing, working together and developing ways of communicating
To give opportunities to develop leadership skills

(Hopper et al. 2000) Aims of OAA Outdoor and Adventurous activities develop mutual support within a group. Participants in adventure activities learn to support others and to be supported in activities that are emotionally and physically risky.

Support and cooperation are essential requirements in a successful and well adjusted life. People who interact with others who are generally supportive are more likely to overcome obstacles and setbacks in their lives. Outdoor recreation supplies a number of benefits to individuals. It contributes to personal physiological and physical well-being. It also provides challenge and adventure to students encouraging the development of social and emotional skills.
(Jensen and Guthrie 2006) How OAA develops social and emotional skills OAA develops self-confidence – having self-confidence can lead to a greater willingness to handle challenges and to learn from and admit mistakes.

Many students with limited physical skills experience a quick success in outdoor activities that leads them to believe in their ability to.
(Steffen 2010)

Young people valued outdoor learning that was fun and not inhibiting and they particularly valued the interrelation of social aspects
(Nilsson et al. 2011) How OAA develops social and emotional skills OAA develops mutual support – group efforts sometimes fail because of conflict among group members. Therefore an important aspect of successful outdoor pursuits programs is the emphasis on working together and respecting others. This necessitates a combination of interpersonal skills and appropriate communication.

Rock climbing for example involves cohesiveness and trust between climber and be layer. Outdoor pursuits develop enthusiastic and contributing group members who view their role as an important component of an effective team.

(Steffen 2010) Real and Perceived Risk Adventure professionals take safety precautions to minimise the risk, so generally the risk is perceived to be greater than it is. The distinction between perceived risk and actual risk is important.

In adventure education professionals strive to keep the actual risk low, while facilitating the perception of risk to focus on student’s attention on the activity to heighten learning.

(Jensen and Guthrie, 2006) Perceived and Real Risk Predictable Unpredictable


Predominantly under the control of participant Events over which participant has

e.g. by correct use of equipment no control

e.g. avalanche, flash flood, rock fail




Perceived risk Real risk
(Beginners) (Committed experts) Perceived and Real What distinguishes outdoor education from the rest of PE is the element of risk and unpredictability which results from the natural environment

Perceived risk is actively sought by teachers in order to give beginners the opportunity to learn and challenge themselves in a situation that appears dangerous and gives a real sense of adventure. In reality the the risk is imagined and the students are kept completely safe within staff leader risk assessment guidelines.

For example abseiling for a beginner certainly feels risky, but correct procedures and safety equipment ensure complete safety. (Carnell et al. 2002) Carnell et al. 2002 Social Capital Social capital refers to connections among individuals-social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.

Social capitals central thesis can be summed up in two words: relationships matter.

By making connections with one another and keeping them over time people are able to work together to achieve things they either could not achieve themselves or could only achieve with great difficulty What is SEAL?
(Social and emotional aspects of learning)
SEAL is designed to promote the development and application to learning of social and emotional skills that have been classified under the five domains proposed in Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence. Boeck et al. 2006 Self-Awareness Knowing myself

Understanding my feelings Developing self-awareness is an aid to enabling young people to further their understanding of themselves. Understanding how they learn, and that feelings, thoughts and emotions have an impact on their behaviour, is central to being able to set realistic goals. Knowing and valuing myself and understanding how I think and feel. When we can identify and describe our beliefs, values, and feelings, and feel good about ourselves, our strengths and our limitations, we can learn more effectively and engage in positive interactions with others. (Scott 2009) DfES 2007) Knowing your strengths and limitations while rock climbing Managing my feelings Managing my expression of emotions

Changing uncomfortable feelings and increasing pleasant feelings When we have strategies for expressing our feelings in a positive way and for helping us to cope with difficult feelings and feel more positive and comfortable, we can concentrate better, behave more appropriately, make better relationships, and work more cooperatively and productively with those around us. (DfES 2007)
• Self-awareness
• Self-regulation (managing feelings)
• Motivation
• Empathy
• Social skills Motivation Working towards goals
Persistence, resilience and optimism
Evaluation and review Working towards goals, and being more persistent, resilient and optimistic. When we can set ourselves goals, work out effective strategies for reaching those goals, and respond effectively to setbacks and difficulties, we can approach learning situations in a positive way and maximise our ability to achieve our potential. Empathy Understanding the thoughts and feelings of others
Valuing and supporting others (DfES 2007) Being able to put aside one’s self-centred focus and impulses has social benefits: it opens the way to empathy, to real listening, to taking another person’s perspective. Empathy...leads to caring, altruism, and compassion. Seeing things from another’s perspective breaks down biased stereotypes, and so breeds tolerance and acceptance of differences. (Goleman 1995) Social skills Building and maintaining relationships
Belonging to groups
Solving problems, including interpersonal ones References Outdoor and adventurous activities are primarily associated with developing technical, intellectual and social skills and sharing decisions through direct experiences of overcoming challenges. (Goleman 1995) (Kasser and Lytle 2005) (Putnan 2000) (Field 2008) Socials skills are developed through problem solving activities and creating and sustaining relationships. Groups and projects such as the Scouts, Girl Guides and Duke of Edinburgh underpin these social skills. We all exist in social contexts. Therefore, we need to learn how to be more effective participants in these social contexts. It recognises that as we do not live in a vacuum; our actions affect other people and their actions affect us. (Bell and Gilbert, 1996) Outdoor adventurous activities allows the expansion of teachers and students understanding of the outdoors and develops their character. (Bunting, 2006) Bell, B. and Gilbert, J. (1996). Teacher Development: A Model from Science Education. UK: The Falmer Press.

Boeck, T., Fleming, J. and Kemshall, H. (2006).The Context of Risk Decisions: Does Social Capital Make a Difference? [Image] Vol. 7 (1), page 24 [Accessed 15th November 2012].

Bunting, C.J. (2006) Interdisciplinary Teaching Through Outdoor Education. UK: Human Kinetics.

Carnell, D., Ireland, J., Jones, C., Mackreth, K. and Wely, S. (2002) Advanced PE for OCR AS Student Book Oxford: Heinemann

Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2007). Social and emotional aspects of learning for secondary schools. Nottingham: DCSF Publications
Field, J. (2008) Social Capital 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Graham, G. (2008) Teaching Children Physical Education - Becoming a Master Teacher 3rd ed. Europe: Human Kinetics

Hopper, B., Grey, J. and Maude, P. (2000) Teaching Physical Education in the Primary School London: RoutledgeFalmer References Jensen, C. R. and Guthrie, S. (2006) Outdoor Recreation in America 6th ed. UK: Human Kinetics

Kasser, S. and Lytle, R. K. (2005) Inclusive Physical Activity: A Lifetime Of Opportunities UK: Human Kinetics

Nilsson,K., Sangster, M., Gallis, C., Hartig, T., Vries, S., Seeland, K and Schipperijn, J. (2011) Forests, Trees and Human Health New York: SpringerPutnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone New York: Simon and Schuster

Scott, D. (2009). Linking self-awareness to improved behaviour. Available: http://www.teachingexpertise.com/e-bulletins/linking-seal-improved-behaviour-5071. [Accessed 19th November 2012].

Steffen, J (2010) Teaching Lifetime Outdoor Pursuits UK: Human Kinetics

Stidder, G. and Hayes, S. (2011) The Really Useful Physical Education Book: Learning and Teaching Across the 7-14 age range Oxon: Routledge Coursework e-Submission Cover Sheet

To be completed by the student:

Person ID: 441156/ 485284

Module Code: 5109

Module Title: Social Development through Physical Education

Coursework Title: Portfolio on P.E. and OAA

Name of Tutor: Nigel Green

Due Date: 26th November

Word Count: 1285

Marker (If different from tutor):

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