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Key Issues in Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Science

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Alice Tocknell

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Key Issues in Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Science

Key Issues in Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Science
Reliability
Validity
Accuracy
Random and Systematic Error
The reliability of a measurement tool can be influenced heavily by random and systematic error.
Inter-Researcher Reliability
Reliability
Reliability is the degree to which repeated measurement produces similar results over time. It is the consistency of a measurement tool. (Atkinson, 2012)
Task
Student A: Pick a number in your head between 30 - 50

Tap your finger on the desk that many times.

Student B: Try to count how many times the desk was tapped
Is this a reliable method??
How could the measurement be improved?
THINK: If you were to carry out research again, would you get the same results?
For example, if we used a test to measure introversion/extroversion, would we get the same results repeatedly?
Random Error
Can be produced by any kind of slip up usually out of the researchers control.
Any number of uncontrolled variables can influence the measurement process and therefore consistency of results
Task: In the following research was aspects would the researcher need to be aware of
An investigation into the VO2 max of L3EDSES on Wednesday mornings.

Measurement Tool: Bleep Test
Systematic Error
A constant error in the measurement process, a lot more serious problem for researchers
Imagine a weigh scale that is miscalibrated by 2kgs. Every time you use the scale you weigh 68kg. But in reality you weigh 70kgs

Although the results are reliabile, they are inaccurate and therefore biased and not valid.
Test-retest reliability
Examines whether different researchers in the same situation would get the same, or similar results.

Quantitative example: Body composition assessment. Skin calliper techniques.

Can you think of a qualitative example?
Relates to doing the same test on different occasions and getting the same, or similar results.

Example: Measurement of heart rate.

HR can be affected by many different factors. If you measured the HR of a subject on the same person, same day, you would get similar results. However, on different days you could get differing results
How fine or small a difference a measurement can detect

Whether you are measuring what you are supposed to be measuring

The repeatability of a set of results

How close the measurement is to the true value

Measuring self-confidence in female academy hockey players
Measuring resting heart rate 5 minutes post exercise
Reliability
Validity
Accuracy
Precision
Reliability
Validity
Precision
Accuracy
What are the key issues: Think in measurement
Am I measuring what I think I am measuring??
V
A
L
I
D
I
T
Y

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
INTERNAL VALIDITY
EXTERNAL VALIDITY
"Internal validity refers to the extent to which results can be attributed to the treatments used in your study”

(Thomas et al, 2005)

“External Validity is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times”

(Tronchim, 2006)

“Construct validity relates to the ability of a measure technique to detect differences between populations who differ in a given construct”

(Williams and Wragg, 2004)

Precision
How close your measurement is to the gold standard
Create a list of all the tools we could use to measure in Sport and Exercise Science.
For example: height could be measured by a tape measure, a measuring board, or a stationary measurement rod
Body Composition
Speed
Distance
Oxygen
Distance
Oxygen
Body Composition
Stop Watch
Light Gates
Speed Gun
Douglas Bags
Oxycon Machine
Tape Measure
GPS Mapping
Scales
Skin Callipers
BMI
Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing
Speed
For example....
Weight of a boxer before a fight
Actual weight: 100kg, your weighing device measures 100.1kg, you could say this is accurate.
However, if it said 103kgs, this would not be accurate
How do we know something is accurate?
Calibration.
Precision is concerned with how small a difference the measuring device can detect
Distance
Oxygen
Body Composition
Stop Watch
Speed Gates
Douglas Bags
Oxycon Machine
Tape Measure
GPS Mapping
Scales
Skin Callipers
BMI
Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing
Speed
Which of these measurement tools are the most precise?

For example an Oxycon Machine will give you the nearest 0.001% reading of exhaled gas.
Reliable, Not Valid

Not Reliable, Not Valid

Low Validity, Low Reliability

Reliable and Valid



Reliable and Valid
Reliable,
Not Valid
Not Reliable,
Not Valid
Low Validity,
Low Reliability
Pick 2 of the key issues below and discuss the data set.....
Reliability
Random Error
Systematic Error
Inter-researcher reliability
Test-retest Reliability
Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Construct Validity
Accuracy
Precision
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