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Transcript of Roman Britain
43 CE 5 CE 43 CE Emperor Claudius sends a force of 20,000 men into Britain led by Aulus Plautius and they gain control over the south-east of Britain. Caratacus leads the British resistance 51 CE British Iceni queen, Boudicca, leads an unsuccessful revolt against the Romans and is killed The Romans conquer Wales under the command of Sextus Julius Frontius Hadrian orders a 117.5km stone wall to be built to separate Roman Britain from the 'barbarians' in the north. Construction of Antonine's wall starts, around 160 km north of Hadrian's Wall. This is to extend the Roman empire into Scotland. Antonine's wall is abandoned by Governor Julius Verus, and the Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall 162 CE Emperor Severus enters Scotland with 40,000 troops and repairs parts of Hadrian's wall. 60 - 61
CE 78 CE 122 CE 142 CE 208 CE The Scots from Iberia (modern day Spain and Portugal) raid western Scotland. The Angles and the Saxons attack the east Postumus rebels against the Roman Emperor Gallienus and creates the Gallic Empire. The Gallic Empire lasts until 274 and Gallic rejoins the Roman Empire after the Galls lose in battle with Aurelian. Carausius the commander of the Roman British fleet, revolts and becomes Britain's emperor until 293 when he is killed and replaced by Allectus for only 3 years. Multiple attacks by the Scots and Picts on Britain from the north, with massive looting and havoc. General Theodosius drives the Pictish and Scottish 'barbarians' out of Roman Britain. Theodosius I, son of General Theodosius, is emperor and the Romans abandon Hadrian's wall. 250 CE 259 CE 287 CE 360s CE 369 CE Roman troops leave Britain to defend Rome against the Visigoths but leave Britain weak to the Picts, Scots and Anglo-Saxons 388 CE The Roman troops from Britain that went back to Rome do not return due to a Visigoth invasion. The Britons rid themselves of the Roman officials and become independent Britons ask for help against the Anglo-Saxons from Emperor Honorius but he tells them to 'look to their own defenses'. This signifies the end of Roman Britain 400 CE 405 CE 409 CE 410 CE Chester's Fort on Hadrian's Wall is an underground strongroom with a stone vault for valuables and cash The Antonine Wall was built with turf on a rubble core and is not as well preserved as Hadrian's Wall. It's 37miles long and stretches between the Forth and Clyde Rivers. The Antonine fort at Rough Castle was protected by ditches and lilia holes which contained sharpened stakes. They were then covered with branches to deceive their attackers. The central sector of Hadrian's Wall at Whin Sill cliff that Hadrian probably inspected himself when he came to Britain in 122. Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland Portrait bust of Julius Caesar (100 - 44 BCE) Roman coin issued after Julius' victories, showing a Celtic warrior and on the reverse an aristocrat's chariot in battle Reconstruction of a Celtic two-wheeled war chariot Julius Caesar and his troops fighting off the Britons at Kent in an 18th century sculpture by John Deare Coin issued about 61 CE showing Boudicca and on the reverse a horse, a valuable asset for the Britons Map showing the locations of Hadrian's and Antonine's walls. Roman coin commemorating Severus' victory over the Picts and Scots Roman ceremonial iron mask c. 100 CE recovered in Newstead, Scotland Roman remains in Caerleon, south-east Wales Relief sculpture showing Roman ships Augustus, the first emperor of Britain (27 BCE - CE 14) British Caratacus coin c. 43 CE, showing Hercules and on the reverse an eagle grasping a snake Bronze statuette of a Roman legionary foot soldier from 1st century CE Roman copper alloy coin of Cunobelinus c. 10 CE Bronze head of Claudius, torn from a public statue, and found in River Alde, Suffolk. Legionary sword with hardened iron blade and Romulus and Remus motif, River Thames, Fulham, 1st century CE The Norman keep at Colchester was built over the remains of the Temple of Claudius, where the Roman legions were slaughtered during Boudicca's rebellion Iron age fort at Hod Hill, Dorset, built into and used by the Romans until the Caratucus uprising Vindolanda, aerial view of the third century fort near Hadrian's Wall Silver ingots used to pay soldiers and civil servants, late 4th-early 5th century, from London Reculver and Richborough, Kent. Marble relief showing Claudius defeating Britannia, c. 50 CE, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Postumus, the founder of the Imperium Galliarum, produced innovative, creative and good quality coins during his regime. Fragment from Brancaster fort, Norfolk, early 3rd century Reculver fort, Kent, was one of a series of forts built to defend the coast against Saxon pirate raids, c. early 3rd century Portchester Saxon Shore fort, was built under the rebel Carausius Lullingstone Roman villa mosaic showing Bellerophon killing the Chimaera & surrounded by the Four Seasons, one of many mosaics suggesting confidence in the south while the north experienced trouble from the invasions Coins stopped arriving in Britain after 402. This one from 397-402 CE shows Honorius and on his shield a horseman is spearing an enemy. Consular diptych of Honorius, the last legitimate emperor of Britain A Nydam ship, this is the type of vessel used by coastal raiders in the 4th century "And the barbarians from beyond the Rhine, ravaging everything at their pleasure, put both the Britons and some of the Gauls to the necessity of making defection from the Roman empire, and of setting up for themselves, no longer obeying Roman laws. The Britons therefore took up arms, and engaged in many dangerous enterprises for their own protection, until they had freed their cities from the barbarians who besieged them."
(Zosimus) Stilicho dyptych. Honorius was emperor but Stilicho held the real power and withdrew the troops in Britain Theodosisus I was the first emperor to decree all citizens should be Christian Carausius claims equality and joint rule with Diocletian and Maximian. Carausius issues this coin with the description "Carausius and his brothers". The reverse shows Pax with an olive branch and a sceptre. The Great Witcombe villa was extended from 250-270, suggesting prosperity during the Gallic Empire, Largest silver Roman coin found to date. It shows Valentinian I and may have been given to Theodosius for his miraculous work regaining of control over Britain. Modern illustration of the Picts invading Britain from the north during the 'Great Conspiracy' Watch-tower at Scarborough on the north-east coast was built after the recovery of Britain by General Theodosius Bodleian Notitia Dignitatum manuscript showing the Roman governors of the provinces in c. 400 CE. The Independence of Britain: Roman soldiers leaving Britain, 410 (a 19th century engraving). The sacking of Rome by Alaric, King of the Visigoths in 410. A Roman bath, one example of the legacy that the Romans left behind when they abandoned Britain. BIBLIOGRAPHY By Colin McGlynn BOOKS:
Guy de la Bedoyere. 2006. Roman Britain: A New History. Thames and Hudson, London.
John Peddie. 2005. Conquest: The Roman Invasion of Britain. Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire.
Peter Salway. 1993. The Oxford Illustrated History of Roman Britain. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Patricia Southern. 2011. Roman Britain: A New History 55BC – AD 450. Amberley, Gloucestershire.
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