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The Incan Empire
Transcript of The Incan Empire
City of Cuzco: capitol; administrative, political, & military center.
Arose in the highlands of Peru during early 13th century.
Lasted from 1438 to 1533.
used many techniques to acquire a large portion of western S. America such as conquest as well as peaceful assimilation.
Official Language: Quechua.
Referred to their empire as "Tawatinsuyu" or "The Four Regions".
"Inka"- Quechua for "ruler" or "lord". Region of the World 1st established in modern-day Peru.
Acquired a large portion of western S. America along the Andean Mountain range including parts of present-day Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, & Columbia. Society Population: has been debated but historians have estimated it to have been ranging from at least 4 million to over 37 million. No one knows for sure.
Official Language: Quechua; spoken in many dialects; lacked written language; kept records on a device called the "quipu" (knots). Religion Reincarnation- death was the passage to new life & beginnings.
Those who followed Incan moral code "went to live in the Sun's warmth while others spent eternity on the cold earth."
Practiced cranial deformation to distinguish social classes.
Practiced human sacrifice to offer blood to he gods & to please them.
Important Deities: Viracocha (created all living things), Pachacamac (Viracocha's wife; goddess of earth; ppl would give her offerings of coca leaves & pray to her for agricultural growth, Inti (Sun god & patron deity of the Holy City of Cuzco). Economy Incas were self-sufficient.
Most, if not all, were farmers.
Topography & climate made it difficult to live in the Andes- was either too mountainous, too dry, or too cold.
Domesticated llama & alpaca.
Cultivated potatoes, maize, beans, pumpkins, chilli pods, coca leaves, various fruits, & cotton.
"Mit'a": taxation through work/labor; road building, bridge building, mining, erecting temples, military services, etc. Social Order Sapa Inca Nobles Craftsmen & Architects Working Class Slaves & Peasants Emperor Priests or relatives of the emperor Usually farmers The Inca State Ideology &
Philosophy Sapa Inca seen as being divine; was head of state religion, priest came 2nd.
Sapa Inca claimed decent from the god Inti; placed high value on imperial bloodlines.
Marriage between bro. & sis. was common in royal family.
Holy City of Cuzco considered to be cosmologically central; "the naval of the universe". Government &
Political Views The Sapa Inca was chosen by a council of advisors of the royal lineage.
No clear line of succession; most competent of the legitimate sons of the Inca's wife was usually selected.
Inca had one main wife & concubines on the side.
Important administrators chosen from the royal family.
Sapa Inca was seen as demigod & was head of state religion.
Theocratic govt.- deities recognized as rulers & official policy was governed by officials who were considered to be divine.
Inca Empire was a totalitarian state meaning that the state hel total control over society; controlled all aspects of public & private life.
Sapa Incas were absolute rulers.
Had no judiciary or legislative branches; no set laws.
Had selected inspectors who governed behavior. Important
Leaders Huascar Inca (1527-1532CE)
Succeeded his father Huayna Capac who died from smallpox.
Succeeded by his half-brother Atahualpa who defeated him in Inca Civil War.
Spanish chronicler Juan de Bentazos wrote about him in a text called "The Narrative of the Incas".
According to Bentazos, "Huascar was a monster who forcefully took the wives of his subordinates if they caught his fancy". Atahualpa (1532- August 29, 1533 CE)
Birthplace: Holy City of Cuzco.
Was the last Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire.
April 1532, he defeated his half-brother Huascar in Inca Civil War which was a battle over succession.
He was captured by Spaniard Francisco Pizarro during Spanish conquest.
Spaniards used him to control the Inca Empire & executed him ultimately ending the empire. VS. The Inca Civil War Huascar Atahualpa From 1527 to 1532 brothers Huascar & Atahualpa fought over succession of the throne.
Their father, Inca Huayna Capac, allowed each of the 2 to rule over a region of the empire; Huascar in Cuzco & Atahualpa in Quito.
Inca Huayna Capac died from smallpox in 1527.
Huascar's Advantage: he ruled over Cuzco, the capital, which granted him the loyalty of the majority of the population.
Atahualpa's Advantage: had the loyalty of the Inca professional army & 3 generals: Chalcuchima, Quisquis & Ruminahui.
Huascar attempted to seize Quito, but failed at the hands of Quisquis's army.
Atahualpa sent Chalcuchima & Quisquis to Cuzco & had Ruminahui stay stationed in Quito.
The Canari people in southern Quito, modern-day Cuenca, sided w/ Huascar.
Atahualpa's military forces destroyed the lands of the Canari & massacred their people.
1532, Quisquis tracked Huascar's forces & captured Huascar.
November 1532, Atahualpa was celebrating his victory in the City of Cajamarca; a group of 170 men, Spanish conquistadors, under Francisco Pizarro, ambushed Cajamarca & captured Atahualpa.
1533, Atahualpa had Huascar killed so that he would not offer Pizarro a larger ransom of gold than he did. Spanish Conquest & Decline Francisco Pizarro:
1529, Pizarro was granted permission from the Spanish monarchy to conquer the lands of Peru.
1532, arrives to Peru & learns of the civil war & disease brought on by Europeans of which was destroying the Inca Empire.
Est. a Spanish settlement called San Miguel de Piura.
Pizarro & his men what thought to be gods by the Natives.
Atahualpa sends messengers to interpret things from the Spaniards to see if they were really gods or not.
Natives realize that the Spaniards are not gods & see them as evil thieves; they referred to the Spaniards as "supai cuna" or devils.
In a meeting, Pizarro denied reports of him enslaving & torturing any Natives; he assured them that the Spaniards wanted peace & he proposed the idea of forming an alliance; Pizarro & Atahualpa agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca.
Nov. 15, 1532, Atahualpa headed towards Cuzco to accept the throne & he held a celebration over his victory at Cajamarca; Pizarro & his men arrived & Atahualpa offered them gold cups; Pizarro gave Atahualpa a letter which he claimed was the word of the god Virococha.
Nov. 16, 1532, Atahualpa arrives at Cajamarca with out any weapons & the Spanish conducted a surprise attack.
Atahualpa was captured & even after giving the Spaniards gold for his ransom, they executed him ultimately ending the Inca Empire. Were the Incas
Loved or Hated? The Incas never really did anything to make themselves hated. There really is not any proof to back up whether they were loved or hated but one could debate that they were hated by the Spaniards. The Spaniards saw the Incas as an obstacle blocking the way for them to obtain desirable treasures & resources. Do I Agree With Their
Beliefs/Policy? In terms of their beliefs, no I do not agree with them. For one I do not believe in polytheism. I also do not agree that a ruler or any human being for that matter is of divine power. I also do not agree with the idea of religion & state being joined together as one. Other than that I admire their idea of self-sufficiency. People should never be too dependent on the government. The End!!! Sources: