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Transcript of Part 3
1) Explain why the lymph nodes enlarge (swell) during an infection.
-The lymph nodes enlarge as a response to filter, trap, fight off foreign pathogens and bacteria due to infections.
2) List the body's seven (7) non-specific defenses.
-The body's non-specific defenses are physical barriers, phagocyte cells, immunological surveillance, interferon's, complement, inflammation, and fever.
3) Explain how mediated (cellular) immunity and antibody-mediated immunity differ.
-In cell-mediated immunity, t-cells provide defense against abnormal cells. In antibody-mediated immunity, b-cells provide defense against antigens and pathogens.
4) A decrease in Cytoxic T-Cells would interfere with the cell-mediated immunity, the body's response against foreign cells and virus infected cells. (True/False)
-This is True.
5) Explain why a lack of Helper-T cells would retard the antibody-mediated response.
-It could not activate plasma cells, and the response would not occur.
6) Given a sample of lymph containing an elevated number of plasma cells, we would expect the number of antibodies in the blood to be increasing/decreasing (choose one)?
-It is Increasing.
7) Explain how stress reduces the effectiveness of the immune system.
-Stress directly suppresses immune cells so the immune does not function properly to invading virus's and bacteria.
8) Explain why the elderly are more susceptible to viral/bacterial infections. Hint talk about T and B cells.
-The number of T-cells decline with age, and the B-cells become less responsive.
9) The incidence of cancer is increased in the elderly. Explain what happens to the effectiveness of the immunological surveillance with age.
- The immunological surveillance declines, and cancerous cells are not eliminated as effectively.
10) Describe two ways the cardiovascular system aids the body's specific and non-specific defenses.
-It fights infection and defends the body against pathogens.
11) A patient has their lymph nodes checked for the presence of cancer cells. The doctor informs the patient that the cancer has likely spread throughout his body. How does the doctor know this?
-Enlarged lymph nodes with visible cancer cells shows the doctor that the cancer has spread throughout the body. The lymph nodes cannot control the spread of cancer.
12) Do T-cells kill infected cells?
-Yes, T-cells kill infected cells.
13) Define antigen.
-An antigen is a toxin or foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
14) AIDS is an immunodeficiency disease. Explain what this means.
-It means a group of health problems that makes up a disease, and a weakness in the body's system that fights disease.
15) Why is the response to the same pathogen swift the second time around?
-Because your immune system has built antibodies that are resistant to it.
16) What is the difference between the role of a macrophage and a cytoxic T-cell?
-Macrophages are sensitive to chemicals released by other body cells. Cytoxic t-cells are not sensitive and attack bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or foreign transplanted tissues.
17) Cytoxic T-cells kill cancer cells. True/False?
-This is True.
18) People diagnosed with AIDS don't actually die of AIDS. What causes their death?
-People are dying of opportunistic infections, an infection they got before they became infected with AIDS.
19) The fastest growing segment of the population getting infected with HIV are__.
-Women, because they represent more than half the cases worldwide.
20) Explain how the AIDS virus takes over its host cell.
-It fuses with the host cell and releases genetic material into the cell. Then it begins re-transcription, and new transcription. Then only to have the virus leave and start the process all over again.
Immune System Response
g) Cytoxic T cells: Lymphocytes involved in cell-mediated immunity that kill target cells by direct contact or through secretion of lymphotoxins.
h) Plasma cells: Activated B cells that secrete antibodies.
i) Memory B cells: Produced daughter cell as activated B cell divides repeatedly. Remains in reserve to respond to subsequent exposure to the same antigen.
j) Suppressor T cells: Lymphocytes that inhibit B cell activation and plasma cell secretion of antibodies.
Activation of the immune response happens when the pathogen enters the body.
Macrophage process and display antigen fragments on cell surfaces.
Antigen presenting macrophage interacts with a t-helper cell.
It recognizes the same antigen.
During interaction, the macrophage releases a chemical alarm signal called interleukin-1.
Helps t-helper cell secrete interleukin-2.
The immune response has two paths-cytoxic t cells, and B cells.
The body makes millions of types of cytoxic T cells.
Death of the infected cell results in destruction of the pathogen.
B cells become activated, they become plasma cells.
Plasma cells become antibody producing factories.
It floods the bloodstream.
Antibodies bind to the antigens.
Some of the B cells do not turn into antibody factories.
It becomes memory B cells, to use in the future.
Powerful secondary immune response is what gives "immunity" to some diseases after you've had them once or been vaccinated.
1) Foreign substances that elicit an immune response are termed
2) Macrophages secrete ________ which then activates ________ .
-interleukin-1, helper t cells
3) The human body makes
-millions of different types of cytoxic t cells
4) Helper T cells can stimulate the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells but not that of B cells.
5) The secondary immune response to a previously encountered pathogen is swifter and stronger than the primary immune response.
Questions to animation
a) Macrophage: A phagocytic cell of the monocyte-macrophage system.
b) Antigen: A substance capable of inducing the production of antibodies.
c) Antibody: A globular protein produced by plasma cells that will bind to specific antigens and promote their destruction or removal from the body.
d) T cells: Lymphocytes responsible for the coordination and regulation of the immune response.
e) B cells: Lymphocytes capable of differentiating into the plasma cells that produce antibodies.
f) Helper T cells: Lymphocytes whose secretions and other activities coordinate the cellular and humane immune responses.