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History of Psychology
Transcript of History of Psychology
Pre-Scientific & Early Psychology
Pre-Scientific Psychology (300 BCE - 1879 CE)
Plato & Socrates
Sir Francis Bacon
Early Psychology (1879 - 1925)
Psychologists were split between those that studied the structures of the mind vs. function of the mind. Various other perspectives surfaced as well.
Present-day psychologists typically do not align themselves strictly with one approach unless they study a specific school of therapy (i.e. psychoanalytic, client-centered or Gestalt therapies).
Rather, psychologists today might call themselves "eclectic". Still, two approaches on the forefront of Psychology are Biopsychology and Evolutionary Psychology.
Review History of
In class notes, match perspectives and psychologists from today's PowerPoint.
Established first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany.
Defined psychology as the science of human mind and consciousness.
Approaches included looking for patterns in thought via introspection.
Wilhelm Wundt’s student.
Used introspection to search for the mind's structures - Structuralism.
Founder of Functionalism.
Argued against Structuralism - focused on the Function of the mind.
Influenced by Darwin - most important was to know how the mind fulfills its purpose.
Father of Psychoanalysis.
Stressed the importance of unconscious motives.
Emphasized the roles of early childhood experiences in developing unconscious desires or conflicts.
First studied Hysteria with Dr. Breuer in Vienna.
Declared that psychology should focus only on measurable and observable behavior.
Redefined psychology as the science of behavior.
Famous for the "Little Albert" experiment, which pioneered conditioning experiments on humans and was an ethical fiasco.
John B. Watson
With the Civil Rights Movement and Hippie Movement, came the realization that humans had control over their own lives.
Founder of Gestalt Psychology. Introduced The New School at the University of Frankfurt, Germany.
Studied primarily perception as a whole, stating that the parts were defined by the whole as much as the whole was defined by its parts.
Known for his Hierarchy of Needs/Motivation
Stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth.
Believed that all people were capable of Self-Actualization.
One of the founders of the Humanistic approach to Psychology
Emphasized individual choice and free will.
Creator of Client-Centered Therapy.
G. Stanley Hall
Franz Joseph Gall
First President of APA
Memory and Forgetting Research
First Woman Ph.D.
People were still considering
whether this was worth studying!
Psychology as a Philosophy
First Woman President of APA
Operant Conditioning Research
Social Learning Theory
Linguistic Development Research
False Memory Research
Francis Cecil Sumner
First African American Ph.D.