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(25) Wait for it... The Mongols
Transcript of (25) Wait for it... The Mongols
African Kingdom of Mali
Crash Course the Mongols
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia—provides home for nomads.
Two main expanses: Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia.
Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differences.
Nomadic Way of Life
Steppe nomads are pastoralists—herd domesticated animals.
Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders.
Nomads travel in clans—kin groups are linked by a common ancestor
Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact.
Some interactions are peaceful, as in trade.
Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth and goods.
Strong state or empire could protect its lands from these invasions.
The Mongols and the Chinese
Mongols live separately from Chinese and follow own laws.
Mongols keep top government posts, and put Chinese in local positions.
Kublai extends Grand Canal to Beijing, and builds a highway.
Trade increases under Kublai, sending Chinese products to other lands.
Kublai invites merchants from other lands to China.
Wait for it... The Mongols
14 Intriguing Things You Might Not Know About The Mongols
1. A Mongol was trained to ride horses by the age of three
2. Most Mongols had keen sights along with evolved visual memories
3. A Mongol warrior could live without food rations for days
4. The Mongols carried two types of arrows into the battle
5. Mongols were actually outnumbered in battles and used dummy soldiers
6. The Mongols were masters of psychological warfare and spying activities
7. There is no word for ‘soldier’ in Mongol language
Genghis Khan Unites the Mongols
Around 1200, Genghis Khan— meaning ”universal ruler”—unites Mongols.
In early 1200s, he begins a campaign of conquest.
By 1225, Genghis Khan controls central Asia.
A brilliant organizer and strategist.
Uses brutality to terrorize his enemies and force surrenders.
8. Mongol officers were accountable for their troops’ preparedness
9. Most Mongol shock cavalry forces were required to wear silk shirts beneath their heavy armor
10. Every winter, the Mongols called for a great strategic hunt of animals
11. The Mongols were among the last people to successfully invade Russia during winter
12. The ordinary Mongols soldiers paid their leaders, not the other way around!
13. For Europeans, the Mongols came from ‘hell’
14.The Mongols were experts in designing and carrying pre-fabricated dwellings
Death and Succession
Genghis Khan dies in 1227.
Successors continue conquests for 50 years.
The Mongols conquer territory from China to Poland.
The Mongols as Rulers:
Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples and cultures.
Some Mongols adopt local ways, leading to a split among khanates- ruler of the mongols after death of Genghis Khan.
The Mongol Peace:
Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s is called Pax Mongolica.
There was much east-west trade and exchange of ideas during this period.
Rise of the Empire
Kublai Khan as New Emperor
Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis, becomes great khan in 1260.
Kublai conquers China by 1279.
Kublai established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), a period of peace and prosperity.
Kublai adopts Chinese ways, and builds capital at Beijing.
In 1274 and 1281, Kublai tries but fails to conquer Japan.
The Massive second invasion was destroyed by a typhoon.
Marco Polo at the Mongol Court
Venetian trader, Marco Polo, visits China in 1275.
Polo returns to Venice in 1292; tells stories of what he saw in China.
Fabulous cities, fantastic wealth
Burning “black stones (coal) to heat Chinese homes
Kublai Khan’s government and trade in Beijing
These stories were gathered in a book, but most readers doubt its truth.
End of Mongol Power
Failed expeditions to Southeast Asia show weakness of Yuan Dynasty.
High taxes cause resentment.
Yuan Dynasty Overthrown:
Kublai dies in 1294; successors are weak.
In 1300s, rebellions break out, leading to formation of Ming Dynasty.
Decline of the Mongol Empire:
Mongol rule collapses in Persia in the 1330s; in Central Asia in the 1370s.
By the end of the 1300s, only Mongol rule in Russia remains, the Golden Horde.
A Period of Turmoil
The Mongol invasion of Europe took place in the 13th century
It involved the severe and rampant destruction of East Slavic principalities and major cities, such as Kiev and Vladimir.
Mongol invasions also affected Central Europe, leading to conflict with the Kingdom of Hungary and causing the fragmentation of Poland