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Unit 3 - Fitness

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Sean Kasak

on 18 October 2017

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Transcript of Unit 3 - Fitness

Hinsdale Central
Physical Education

Components of Fitness
Muscular Strength
Body Composition
Heart Rates and moderate to vigorous physical activity
What is it?
The ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly over time.
When training, it is important to work out while in your target heart rate zone.
Cardiovascular Endurance
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Body Composition
What is it?
The ability of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to your tissues during long periods of moderate to vigorous activity.

What are some health benefits of cardiovascular exercise?
How can you increase cardiovascular Fitness?
THR Aerobic activity
Anaerobic activity
What is it?
The muscles ability to exert maximum force at a given time.
What are some benefits of increasing muscular strength?
Increase physical capacity
Physical appearance
Metabolic function
Increased energy
Decreased risk of injury
How can you increase muscular strength?
Resistance training (Isotonic exercise)
When pressure is exerted against an immovable object (push-ups, dips, pull-ups)
Work major muscle groups
Weight Training Program
Repetition & Sets
Progressive Overload
Muscular Strength (cont.)
What are the benefits of muscular endurance?

Increases the muscles ability to process oxygen and increase longevity of work
How do you
improve endurance?
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
F.I.T.T. Principle:
Frequency - How often are you doing the activity?
Intensity - How hard are you working when engaged in the activity?
Time - How long of a duration will you be engaged in the activity?
Type - Which exercises will you be using in order to improve the component of fitness?
What is it?
The body’s ability to move through a full range of motion injury and pain free.

How can you increase flexibility?
Dynamic warm-up is the best way to improve.

Give an example of how you can test someone’s flexibility.
What is it?
Percentage of body fat in relation to your total body weight.
Body Mass Index?
Height to weight ratio
Chart indicates if you are underweight, healthy, overweight, or obese.
Why is this important?
High body composition/BMI are susceptible to a variety of negative health conditions.
How do you find your BMI?
(Weight in POUNDS)
(Your height in INCHES)
6'1 , 215 lbs.
(215 / 5329) x 703 = 28.3
How do you find your target heart rate (THR) zone?

208 - (.7 x Age) = MHR
A student age 15 or 16 will have a MHR of
beats per minute (BPM)
Different heart rate zones can be determined based on what type of exercise or outcomes from exercise you are focusing on.
Control your weight
Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease
Reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome
Reduce your risk of some cancers
Strengthen your bones and muscles
Improve your mental health and mood
Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult
Increase your chances of living longer
Benefits of
Physical Activity
How Physical Activity
Influences Learning
As you watch...
According to the report, how is P.E. different now than it was in the past?
What impact did the physical activity have
the students academic achievement?
How did regular physical activity influence the physical, mental/emotional, and social health of the students?
-Centers For Disease Control and Prevention
Research shows that lower rates of these conditions are seen with 120 to 150 minutes (2 hours to 2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of at least moderate-intensity aerobic activity. And the more physical activity you do, the lower your risk will be.
The term "anaerobic" means "without air" or "without oxygen." Anaerobic exercise uses muscles at high intensity and a high rate of work for a short period of time. Anaerobic exercise helps us increase our muscle strength and stay ready for quick bursts of speed. Think of short and fast when you think of anaerobic exercise.
Examples of anaerobic exercise include heavy weight lifting, sprinting, or any rapid burst of hard exercise. These anaerobic exercises cannot last long because oxygen is not used for energy and a by-product, called lactic acid, is produced.
Lactic Acid contributes to muscle fatigue and must be burned up by the body during a recovery period before another anaerobic bout of exercise can be attempted. The recovery period also allows the muscles to use oxygen to replenish the energy used during the high intensity exercise.
Aerobic exercise requires oxygen and consists of lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time.

Activities like walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to make the energy needed for prolonged exercise.
The structure or build of a person (their body type)
•Very thin and lean
•Narrow shoulders, hips and chest
•Not much fat or muscle
•Long arms and legs
•Thin face and high forehead
•Have a hard time gaining weight
•Muscular physique
•Wide shoulders & narrow hips
•Strong arms and legs
•Very little body fat
•Can gain or lose weight with less effort than the other two types
•Large body frame
•High percentage of body fat despite amount of muscle
•Wide hips but narrow shoulders
•Ankles and wrists tend to be slim
•Gain weight easily
Vitamins &
Body Mass
Index (BMI)
Heart Rate
Heart Rate
Recap -
3 - 2 - 1
things you understand so well that you could teach it to another student
things you need a little bit more help on
thing you're totally lost on (if anything)
Maximum Heart Rate
All contestants start facing the teacher
Swatter MUST be on the table as the teacher reads the question
Contestants must wait for teacher to say GO before they can take their swatter, turn around, and attempt to swat the answer
You only get 1 swat! Choose wisely!
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Physical Activity
On a sheet of paper, record the following:
2. For each of the components of fitness below, record ANY physical activities that you do on a regular basis and record the F.I.T.T. information for each item. One example is shown in the chart for you.
1. Current Fitness Goal(s)
3. What might prevent you from reaching yoru goals? (Time, injury, lack of commitment, etc)
Maintain current level of strength/body fat/cardio, body weight, etc.
Gain muscle all over or in certain areas of your body.
Improve cardiovascular endurance (be able to run "X" amount of time or distance, train for marathon/triathalon,5K run, etc.,
Think about your current level of physical activity. On a piece of paper, list any activities that you do on a regluar basis that would fall under each level.
While you do it, also consider the different components of fitness that are met with each activity. Are you hitting on them all?
A type of good cholesterol which reduces the bad cholesterol that builds up on the walls of blood vessels.
The physical need for food, as demanded by the body for fuel/energy.
The type of macronutrient that is the primary source of energy, and can come in fast and slow release forms.
A measurement of body composition that uses height and weight to calculate an estimated percentage of body fat.
The type of cholesterol that will build up in the blood vessels over time and can cause cardiovascular problems
The essential nutrient that is most abundant within our body. It helps hydrate among a myriad of other things.
The highest estimated number of times a heart can beat within a minute, calculated using a persons age.
This refers to how efficiently our body uses the nutrients we use for energy. If it works faster, we burn more calories. If it works slower, we burn less.
A group of different ranges of heart rates which can provide different physiological benefits based on which one a person is working out in.
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all contain these, which we use for energy. Eat too many of us, and we'll be stored in your body as fat for later use.
This component of fitness takes into account all the different types of tissue in a persons body, with an emphasis on how much fat vs. lean tissue someone has.
An eating disorder where a person consumes large amounts of food and then immediately purges it from their system by vomiting it up.
The component of fitness that measures how efficiently a persons cardivascular system can get oxygen to the muscles when they are in activity.
A type of fat that builds up LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream.
The component of fitness that measures how well a muscle can exert force over a long period of time
A type of exercise that requires a supply of oxygen in order for the activity to be sustained.
A type of carbohydrate that helps keep the digestive tract moving, and can help remove waste.
A type of eating disorder where a person purposefully refrains from eating the nutrients needed to maintain a healthy body weight.
The type of somatotype where a person is long and lean with their body frame, but struggles to gain and maintain fat and muscle.
The type of somatotype where a person can easily modify their body fat and muscle mass on their frame.
The psychological desire for food, even if the body doesn't need it at the time for fuel.
A person who eats mostly or exclusively plant based foods.
The type of macronutrient that is used primarily for building and maintaining tissues of the body.
Refers to how long a person should do an exercise or workout, or how many repititions of an activity they should do.
Refers to the level of exertion a person should experience while in activity.
Refers to how often a person should do an exercise or activity when they are following an exercise plan/routine.
The component of fitness that refers to how well a persons muscular system can exert a large amount of force one time.
The type of somatotype where a person has a larger body frame and can gain weight easier than the other two main somatotypes.
The classification of exercise that does not require continuous amounts of oxygen to do, but it can only be maintained for a short period of time before the body gets tired or requires oxygen.
Resting Heart Rate
Your RESTING HEART RATE (RHR) is the rate that your body pumps blood when your body is relaxed, free of illness, and not doing any sort of exercise or movements that require additional energy consumption.

Most resting heart rates are anywhere between 60-100. Your physical health can play a dramatic role in your resting heart rate as well. Other factors that can influence a person's resting heart rate include:
Activity level
Fitness level
Air temperature
Body position (standing up or
lying down, for example)
Body size

UNIT 3 -
So lets imagine...
A person who has been long removed from an exercise routine has decided they want to improve their physical health. They come to you for advice since you're so knowledgeable about maintaining a healthy body.

Their statement: I realize that I'm out of my element and have no idea where to begin with taking control of my fitness regimen. What are all the things I should think about and consider before I get started?

What are all the things they should consider?
What advice would you give them?
Some things to think about:
What are their goals that they are looking to achieve as a result of their fitness regimen
What is their current level of fitness/health?
Are there any medical considerations that need to be taken into consideration?
What activities do they like to do for exercise?
Knowledge of aerobic/anaerobic/resistance training activities and techniques (for safety)
Do they have any knowledge of the different training principles?
Do they understand how different exercise use different fuel systems and therefore can provide different results (Next slide will illustrate)
Equipment? Facilities? Programs?
Documentation? Accountability? Tracking progress?
Much much more!

"If you FAIL to PREPARE, you should PREPARE to FAIL."
Metabolism & Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal Metabolic Rate
refers to the number of calories that is needed to keep your body functioning at rest in order to support your vital body functions.

Why bother knowing your BMR?
If you know your BMR, you can calculate the approximate amount of calories you burn in a day. From there, you can determine how many calories you need to eat to achieve any nutrition or fitness goals, whether they are to maintain your weight, gain muscle, or reduce fat.

How do I find my BMR?
To most accurately calculate BMR, someone can sign up to conduct a BMR test at a medical facility, which would require at least 12 hours of fasting and 8 hours of sleep before the test.

You can find several different types of BMR calculators online. Several formulas that take a variety of variables into consideration, but the three consistent parts of the formula include a persons height, weight, and age. One such example for those who want a rough estimation is shown below:
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

The conditions include:
increased blood pressure
high blood sugar
excess body fat around the waist
abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels

Having just one of these conditions doesn't mean you have metabolic syndrome. However, any of these conditions increase your risk of serious disease. Having more than one of these might increase your risk even more.
-Mayo Clinic

BMR = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) + 5
BMR = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) - 161

The Relationship Between Exercise Intensity & Fuel Choice/Usage
Slides Courtesy of Dr. Dale Brown and his staff at Illinois State University
Not all exercise produces the same results, nor do they all use the same fuel source.

Depending on what you're doing, you might utilize more carbohydrates to fuel your body, or you might be using more stored fats.

Fitness/training zones for THR will also be dependent on a variety of factors. THR is NOT one size fits all! It depends on your current level of fitness as well as other factors.
Simply defined by Mayo Clinic, Stroke Volume is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. The stroke volume is not all the blood contained in the left ventricle; normally, only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is expelled with each beat. Together with the heart rate, the stroke volume determines the output of blood by the heart per minute (cardiac output).

In general in a healthy individual, a higher stroke volume will result in a lower resting heart rate as well as a more efficient functioning cardiac output during physical activity.


Metabolic Equivalent (MET) Scale

While heart rate zones are a very effective way to measure intensity, if a person doesn't have access to the equipment they can easily rely on simple methods of self-assessment in regard to how a person feels when in activity. The more scientific MET scale uses a formula to convert the amount of energy consumed during physical activity to a number (which is not capped at 10), whereas the 1 to 10 scale for RPE assesses based on how the person feels during the exercise, taking into consideration their breathing and stress put on their muscles, and heart rate.
Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale
MVPA video using MET Scale
The term "somatotype" and subsequent classifications under it was developed by U.S. psychologist W.H. Sheldon. While several aspects and theories he had regarding a persons somatotype regarding its influence on a persons behavior or personality were subsequently debunked by science and/or received heavy criticism.

Even now, the term somatotype can get a lot of criticism, especially in the body building community. However, it is still an actively used and researched concepts, albeit with support and criticism from both sides.
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