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Cellular Division

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Shamani Krishnan

on 21 October 2012

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Transcript of Cellular Division

Discuss in detail processes involved in Meiosis I and II, the differences between
Meiosis and Mitosis and Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Question 2 Meiosis I Division of cell into 2, each with homologous chromosomes.
Known as a reductional division.
Generates genetic diversity. Meiosis II Second splitting of cell.
Separation of homologous chromosomes to produce 4 daughter cells, each with a sister chromatid. Mitosis Vs Meiosis Mitosis and Meiosis have different results, but they undergo similar processes. Meiosis I Vs Meiosis II Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate
Unduplicated chromosomes are pulled towards the spindle poles by the spindle microtubules as it shortens Telophase II Cluster of chromosomes reach spindle poles
Nuclear envelope forms and encloses the cluster Prophase I Homologous chromosome condense, pair up and exchange segments.
One centriole pair moves to the opposite side of the cell as the nuclear envelope breaks up.
Spindle microtubules begin to extend from the centromosomes. Metaphase I The chromosome pairs are aligned midway between spindle poles Anaphase I Spindle microtubules separate the homologous chromosomes and pull them to the opposite spindle poles. Telophase I The chromosomes reach the spindle poles
New nuclear envelope forms around the two clusters.
Two haploid cells (n) formed contains a set of homologous chromosomes. Stages of Meiosis I Prophase II No DNA replication takes place Chromosomes condense.
Spindle poles move to the opposite ends of the cell.
Nuclear envelope disintegrates. Metaphase II Sister chromatids begin to align midway on the metaphase plate.
Spindle microtubules attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids End results Stages of Meiosis II Mitosis Meiosis (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Occurs in Number of Type of Number of chromosomes mother cell division Preceded by S-Phase Homologous chromosomes Splitting of centromeres Crossing-Over Genotype Number of DNA strands Somatic cells Gamete cells One division Products Two divisions Haploid or diploid Diploid Remains the same Haploid number (n) Yes Only in meiosis I amount of DNA is duplicated Not paired Completely paired in Prophase I No Yes During anaphase During anaphase II only Identical to mother cell Differs from mother cell Remains the same Halved 2 daughter cells 4 daughter cells End Results Meiosis Square Dance happens (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Meiosis I Meiosis II Reduction Division Reduce the number of chromosomes from 2n to n Divides the remaining set of chromosomes in a mitosis-like process What Prophase (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Meiosis I Meiosis II Replication Synapse Crossing over yes no yes no yes no forms chiasma Metaphase (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Meiosis I Meiosis II Paired homologous chromosomes tetrads (bivalents) align at the equator Sister chromatids align at the equator Anaphase 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Meiosis I Meiosis II Separation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles Separation of sister chromatids to opposite poles Telophase (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Meiosis I Meiosis II Single cytokinesis Two cytokinesis Two non-identical cells produced Four non-identical cells produced
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