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Chapter 5, Nonverbal Communication

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by

Alison Aloisio

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 5, Nonverbal Communication

Engaging in Nonverbal Communication Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication 1) Nonverbal communication is ambiguous:

We can never be sure that others understand what we are trying to express
Meanings change over time
Peace sign in the 1960's meant victory during the world wars
Like verbal communication, nonverbal communication is guided by rules that reduce the ambiguity of nonverbal communication
We whisper in libraries, but can shout at ballgames
We dress differently for class, work, dates, interviews, and workouts Principles of Nonverbal Communication 2) Nonverbal Behaviors Interact
with Verbal Behaviors:

Nonverbal behaviors may repeat verbal messages

Nonverbal behaviors may highlight verbal messages

Nonverbal communication may compliment or add to words

Nonverbal behaviors can contradict verbal messages

Sometimes we substitute verbal behaviors for verbal ones Principles of Nonverbal Communication 3) Nonverbal Communication Regulates Interaction

Nonverbal cues, more than verbal ones, tell us when to speak or stay silent in conversation Principles of Nonverbal Communication 4) Nonverbal Communication Establishes Relationships:
Nonverbal Language = "Relationship Language"

3 Dimensions
Responsiveness:eye contact, attentive posture, inflections and other gestures can express interest...or lack of
Liking:in the West, we smile and touch to express like, whereas we may frown or express belligerent postures to express dislike
Power: we use nonverbal behaviors to assert dominance
Gestures
Space
Silence Principles of Nonverbal Communication 4) Nonverbal Communication Reflects Cultural Values



Like verbal communication, nonverbal patterns reflect rules of specific cultures (it is not instinctual, but learned)
Holding hands with same-sex friends
Crowds
Time
Eye Contact Principles of Nonverbal Communication Types of Nonverbal Behaviors Space and how it is used

In the United States:
Social acquaintances are kept 4 to 12 feet away
Friends and family can be kept as close as 18 inches or less

Space means status:
More space = Higher status


Space can define closeness and desire, or lack there of Proxemics Body Position and Motions
(including facial expressions)

Bodies communicate how we see ourselves
Standing erect vs. slouching and shuffling

Audiences show interest by having alert body posture

Posture can signify openness to interaction

Eyes, "Windows to the soul" Kinesics Nonverbal communication involving physical touch

The way you are touched as a child is said to have an impact on you later in life
Children that are pushed or handled harshly see that as a sign of rejection
Babies that are touched more thrive when they are older

Women are more likely to touch when showing liking or intimacy

Men are more likely to use touch when showing assertiveness and control Haptics In Western culture, physical appearance is important
We often make judgements about others based on sex, skin color and size Physical Appearance The perception of scents and odors

This is said to be the first of our senses to develop and it remains to be the quickest
Our brain registers it faster than light or sound
Scents are registered in our limbic system, where emotional memories are stored Olfactics Personal objects we use to announce our identities and personalize our environments Artifacts Types of Nonverbal Behaviors Elements of settings that affect how we feel, think and act

We are more relaxed in rooms that have comfortable chairs
Colors have been shown to have an effect on cognitive functions
Red: accuracy, recall and attention to detail
Blue: creativity Environmental Factors How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction

Expresses cultural attitudes toward time

The length of time we spend with different people reflects the extent of our interest in them and affection for them


Example: In some cultures, business is conducted quickly by staying on task whereas in other cultures it is conducted more slowly by intermingling tasks and social interactions. Chronemics Communication that is vocal, but not actual words

Includes sounds like murmurs and gasps, as well as vocal qualities such as volume, rhythm, pitch and inflection

We use paralanguage to communicate feelings
Whispering
Sighing
Sarcasm
Warmth
Pitch Paralanguage A lack of communicated sound

Silence can often convey contentment
Like other forms of communication, silence-and what it means-is liked to culture


Ex. European Americans/Native Americans Silence End of Types Nonverbal Communication:
makes up 65-95% of the total meaning of communication
includes gestures, body language, how we utter words (inflection/volume), features of the environment that affect meaning (temperature/lighting) and objects that affect personal images and interaction (dress/furniture) No matter your age, culture, or gender, nonverbal communication powerfully shapes meaning into our lives! Actions speak louder than words:
Nonverbal communication can convey more than any sentence The ideal physical appearance varies depending on culture
Western culture: Women focus on thinness while men focus on masculinity and height (can cause problems)

African societies: women focus on full-figured bodies, they are a symbol of health, prosperity and wealth Physical Appearance is affected by social class
Women with strong ethnic cultures will resist the Caucasian outlook on appearance
Middle class African Americans are more susceptible to anxieties about weight Body odor can affect sexual attraction Examples:
Make-up/jewelry
Form-fitted clothing/high-heeled shoes
Pockets Artifacts can be used to:
Express cultural identities
Determine a professional identity or school symbol
Define personal territories of nonverbal communication Guidelines for Effective
Nonverbal Communication
Are you projecting the image you desire?
Do others notice your facial expressions and body movements? Monitor Your Nonverbal Communication Interpret Others' Nonverbal Communication Tentatively Never assume what a particular behavior means
Approach nonverbal interpretations with awareness Personal Qualifications:Generalizations about nonverbal behavior that rely on I-language
Crossed arms, closed eyes Contextual Qualifications: The meaning of nonverbal behaviors depends on the context in which it occurs
Sports teams/how we dress
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