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COMMUNICATION in ww1
Transcript of COMMUNICATION in ww1
BY: Mckinzy Mason, Michael Tran, Dariella Torres, Bailey Mardesich
- Pigeons like Cher Ami were used to send messages during war.
- Cher Aim died from battle wounds. The most lethal was a bullet wound in the breast.
- the enemy would also have birds of prey such as hawks and falcons to take down the messenger pigeons
- France and U.S. used carrier pigeons to send messages along the front.
- dogs were also used to send messages but they were an easier target and were not as efficient as the pigeons
Signallers of WW1
Signallers were used to send and receive messages on the front lines
Used either wired telephones or special lamps that used Morse code
One man controlled the signalling device while another looked through a telescope to receive a response/message
Signallers either wore a armlet or brassard, both being white over blue, on both of their upper sleeves.
- Closed off all Radio units to foreign countries, this was known as the Censorship Situation.
- Marconi Wireless Company of America, was partners with Great Britain and Italy, in response to the Censorship Situation they revolted against the government.
“The message he carried was from Major Whittlesey's ‘Lost Battalion’ of the 77th Infantry Division that had been isolated from other American forces. Just a few hours after the message was received, 194 survivors of the battalion were safe behind American lines.”
Used landlines to communicate with other field telephones
- In the early stages of the war all radio communication was designed for easy transport since they moved the radios by wagon.
- There were two main radio field units: Pack and Wagon
U.s. During the war
In 1916 the field telephone was replaced by the Fullerphone
Trench Signalling Lamp
"’Cher Ami’ was later inducted into the Racing Pigeon Hall of Fame in 1931 and received a gold medal from the Organized Bodies of American Racing Pigeon Fanciers in recognition of his extraordinary service during World War I.”
A battery operated lamp in a wooden case that had a bulls eye lens to focus the lamp's light
had a Morse code key to toggle the lamp on and off
used for communication between trenches
European countries during the war
used to communicate to a distant location
- “In August, 1914, the Belgians had to completely destroy major international communications station located near Brussels, in order to keep it from falling into the hands of the advancing German army”
made of and adjustable wooden tripod and a mirror assembly
used by setting it up on high ground and attaching the mirror and Morse key to it
used the mirror to reflect sunlight and communicate with the Morse key
What makes this topic unique?
- I find the high rate of technological evolution quite unique, especially in the form of radio communication.Before they needed a wagon just to carry one radio, later in the war they introduced a travel size radio that was as big as a regular backpack. They still used wagons for the bigger radio command centers but now they could reach out into the trenches and spread communication faster.
What connections does this topic have with the novel?
- In the novel there were messenger dogs in the battle field. One character, Berger, went out in "no man's land" to finish off the injured dog, in his act of kindness he was shot in the pelvis
What part of this research was most interesting or surprising?
- It was surprising how successful carrier pigeons were in transporting messages even when being shot at.
-"merchant ship sailors in European waters who had access to radio receivers were able to obtain relatively complete and timely war news, based on announcements transmitted by the high-powered radio stations operated by the major powers”
- radio helped keep people up to date with the war, all they had to do was tune in to the station.
Radios at the Front
-"..the British front lines, where operators with portable transmitters proved invaluable, for "If a gas attack is coming, it is he who sends the warning to the men behind to put their gas helmets on... During the war, the Germans used radio transmissions to help airships navigate to their bombing run targets”
- every ship was encouraged by the navy to have a radio transmitter on it
Popular amongst most countries when in the trenches.
Proved to be most reliable source of communication due to the abundant source of birds and unnoticeable presence.
Could be easily sent off in the middle of battle.
Evidence from the story of the bird Cher Ami,saving many solders by sending distress signals.
Given the speed and effectiveness of the pigeons, they were incredibly hard to take down.
Had a 95% success rate to get to the receiver and back.
“The October, 1916 edition of the United States Signal Corps' Radiotelegraphy manual reviewed advances in Pack and Wagon Set designs, including the adoption of quenched spark transmitters, and the reduction, by one, of the number of mules needed to carry a Field Pack set. Also included was a short section on the beginnings of mechanization, with development of transmitters carried by automobiles, plus information on an early form of spread spectrum transmission”
- Radio equipment had to destroyed so that the enemy could not tune in to the opposing sides station.
- In every front there were radio posts that would be used to warn the soldier when an attack or gas bomb was near.
-Radio also served as a weapon, one side would use false radio signals to confuse enemy airplanes.