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Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

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Joseph Giorlando

on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

Threshold
Amount
of stimulation needed for a neuron to
fire

(go from "resting potential" to "action potential")
Once reached:
Refractory Period
Types of Neurotransmitters
Major Neurotransmitters in the Body
Acetylcholine
Dopamine
GABA
Glutamate
Serotonin
Endorphins
Norepinephrine
Nervous System
- Speedy
- Electrochemical communication network
nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons that connect that CNS to the rest of the body
(CNS)
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that send incoming
sensory information
from
sensory receptor cells
to the brain/spinal cord for processing
Motor Neurons
Interneurons
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that
enable communication
between sensory neurons
and
motor neurons
Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Controls:
Glands
Muscles of internal organs
ex.
heartbeat, digestion
Operates "
autonom
ously"
Somatic Nervous System
SNS
Enables voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System
- Expends energy
arousing
ex.
accelerated heartbeat
- When you are challenged:
Makes you alert and ready for action
Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Conserves energy
calming
ex.
lowering heartbeat
PNS
"Rest and Digest"
"fight or flight"
aka.
Efferent Nuerons
aka.
Afferent Neurons
S
A
M
E
ensory
fferent
otor
fferent
Medulla
It controls autonomic functions and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord.

heartbeat
breathing
Pons
Functions:
Function:
Coordinate movement
Reticular Formation
Nerve network
within brain stem
Function:
Controlling arousal
Cerebellum
"little brain"
Attached to rear of the brainstem
Function:
Voluntary movement and coordination
Thalamus
"Sensory Switchboard"
Transmits messages to the sensory areas of the cortex
(more on this later)
(except smell)
Doughnut-shaped
"Emotion Center"
fear
aggression
sex
food
Amygdala
Almond shaped neural clusters
Functions:
Hypothalamus
Directly below thalamus
(hypo)
"Maintenance activities"
Functions:
hunger/thirst
sex drive
body temperature
also...
links nervous system to
endocrine system
through the
pituitary gland
more on those later
Hippocampus
Function:
Formation of long-term memory
Cerebral Cortex
Interconnected neural cells that covers cerebral hemispheres
Frontal Lobes
Primary Function:
Decision-making
Muscle movements
Contains:
Motor Cortex
Broca's Area
muscle movement controlling speech
Parietal Lobes
Contains:
Receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital Lobes
Primary Function:
Visual processing
sends signals throughout our body controlling muscle movement
Motor Cortex
Temporal Lobes
Primary Function:
Auditory sensory information
Contains:
Wernicke's Area
Interprets written and spoken speech
Contains:
Visual cortex
Auditory cortex
Association Areas
Areas not associated with receiving sensory information or coordinating muscle movements
ex.
much of the parietal lobes
ex.
forward part of frontal lobe -> judgment, planning
Corpus Callosum
Large band of neural fibers connecting both hemispheres
Endocrine System
Sends hormones as messages
bloodstream
instead of synapses
hormones produced by
glands
similar to neurotransmitters (nervous system) but much
slower
and
longer lasting
Pituitary Gland
"Master Gland"
Produces hormones that:
regulate other glands
growth hormones
Influences:
blood pressure
body growth
sexual behavior
Adrenal Glands
Secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
Function:
Endocrine glands above kidneys
Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands release hormones
Adrenal Glands
release adrenaline
adrenaline
increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar
"fight or flight"
Case Study
ex. Phineas Gage
1848:
Frontal Lobe damage
Became profane and dishonest
Lesion
Experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Purpose:
Overall brain activity
No direct access
Records electrical activity across the brain's surface
CAT Scan/CT Scan
Computerized Axial Tomography
X-rays create:
Can determine brain damage (ex. tumor)
3D image of brain
MRI
Uses magnetic field and radio waves
computer-generated image of brain
PET Scan
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Shows brain activity
Uses radioactive glucose to determine location of brain activity
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI
Compares successive MRIs
Shows function and structure by measuring movement of blood molecules within the brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Thyroid Gland
Function:
Secretes hormones that control metabolism
Affects:
weight
energy/alertness
Hemisphere Fun
Rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating oppoisite foot in the othet direction.
No problem since controlled by two hemispheres
Now, rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating the foot of the same side in the opposite direction
Hemisphere Specialization
Left
Right
Speaking
Calculating
Language Processing
Logic
Visual-spatial processing (thinking in pictures)
Quick-thinking
Splitting the Brain
Procedure in which the two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly of the corpus callosum)
Allows for research into hemisphere specialization
Most common sleep research
Brain Plasticity
Following traumatic brain injuries
Brain's ability to modify itself
More likely in younger ages
Rerouting connections to avoid damaged dendrites
Ben Carsen Video
Behavior Genetics
Study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment
(aka. nature vs. nurture)
Twin Studies
Twin Studies
Studying the effects of heredity and environment on two sets of twins (identical or fraternal)
heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Separated Twins
Studying comparing identical twins raised separaretly from birth
Adoption Studies
Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest that adoptees (who are biologically unreleated)
tend to be more different
from their adoptive parents and siblings than their biological parents.
Heritability
The extent to which the differences among people are attributable to genes.
Proportion:
0.0 - 1.0
0.0 = Genes do not contribute at all
.9 = Height
90% of the variance among people is due to genetics
Environmentability
The extent to which the differences among people are attributable to the environment
Same 0.0 - 1.0 proportion
Nature and Nurture
Some human traits are fixed
two eyes
Genes provide choices for an organism when environmental variables change
Gene-Environment Interaction
Natural Selection
Evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations
These traits help animals survive and reproduce
Those organisms that are best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce
Thus... pass genes along
Evolutionary Psychology
Study the origins of behavior and mental processes
emphasizing the adaptive or survival value of such traits
Human Traits
A number of human traits have been identified as a result of pressures afforded by natural selection.
ex. Stranger Anxiety
What is the benefit for infants to fear strangers when they become mobile?
Another ex: phobias (spiders, snakes)
Other Human Traits with Adaptive Values
Language
All children acquire language without specific instruction (in all cultures at about the same time)
Brains are predisposed for language
Unit 6:
Biological Bases of Behavior

Goals
Essential Task 6-1:
Essential Task 6-2:
Essential Task 6-3:
Essential Task 6-4:
Essential Task 6-5:
Essential Task 6-6:
Essential Task 6-7:
Essential Task 6-8:
Essential Task 6-9:
Identify the basic parts of the neuron (dendrites, cell body, axon, myelin sheath, terminal buttons, synaptic vesicles, and receptor sites) and types of neurons (motor neuron, inter neuron and sensory neuron).
Describe the electric process of neural firing including resting potential, action potential, threshold of excitation, all-or-none law, and refractory period.
Describe the chemical process of transmitting a signal between neurons with specific reference to the synapse (synaptic vesicles, synaptic cleft and receptor sites), neurotransmitters, and reuptake.

Describe the function and disorders related to key neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, acetylcholine, GABA, and norepinephrine).

Describe the subdivisions and functions of the central nervous system:

I. Central Nervous System
A. Brain
i. Brain Stem
Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum,
and the Thalamus
ii. Limbic System
Hypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampus
iii. Cerebral Cortex (Left and Right Hemispheres and the
corpus callosum)
Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe,
and the Frontal Lobe
Primary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory
Cortex
Wernicke's Area and Broca's Area
B. Spinal Cord
Describe the subdivisions and functions of the peripheral nervous system:

II. Peripheral Nervous System
A. Somatic Nervous System
B. Autonomic Nervous System
i. Sympathetic Nervous System
(Fight or Flight)
ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System
(Rest and Digest)

Identify key glands of the endocrine system and describe their effects on behavior.
Detail historical and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research such case studies like Phineas Gage, split-brain research, structural imaging (CAT Scans and MRIs), and functional imaging (PET scans and fMRIs).
Explain how heredity and environment work together to shape behavior with specific attention to heritability and gene-environment interaction.
Structure of the Neuron
D
endrites
A
xon
T
erminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicle
Dendrites
Axon
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Dendrite
Receptor Sites
Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Neural Communication
Electrical
Resting Potential
Action Potential
When a neuron is not transmitting or receiving a message
Resting Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Neural Communication
Processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signal
"The messenger"
Nerve Cell
Chemical
Action Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Threshold
Refractory Period
All-or-None Law
Categories
Nervous System
reflex movements
Spinal Cord
Carry messages to and from the brain
Functions:
Cable of nerves connecting the brain to the rest of the body
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Brain
Hindbrain
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Lobes
Corteses
sends signals throughout our body controlling muscle movement
Sensory Cortex
Association Areas
Corpus Callosum
Peripheral Nervous System
Endocrine System
Glands
Studying the Brain
Brain Imaging
Structure
Function
Case Study
Lesion
Split-Brain Research
Brain Plasticity
MRI
CAT/CT Scan
fMRI
PET Scan
EEG
Hemisphere Specialization
Behavior Genetics
Heritability
Environmentability
How Behavior Genetics are Studied
Twin Studies
Adoption Studies
Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
Adaptive Traits
- Influences your ability to sleep
cut seizures
Somatosensory Cortex
Pons
Reticular Formation
Medulla
Cerebellum
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Motor Cortex
Sensory Cortex
"Fight or Flight"
aggression, anger and fear
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathethic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands
Thyroid Gland
Pituitary Gland
DAT Way
Function:
Biological Psychology
Types of Neurons
Receives information from other neurons at
receptor sites
- and transmits it through to rest of the neuron (
DAT
Way)
What:
Sites on the surface of the dendrites sensitive to a chemical called
neurotransmitters
Function:
Cell Body
Responsible for transmitting messages received by dendrites to other neurons (or even muscles) through the
terminal buttons
Function:
Fatty substance around the axon - for the purpose of
quickening the speed
of communication
Side Note:
Breakdown has been well connected with Multiple Sclerosis - and some evidence suggests may also be the case with Alzheimer's
Function:
Branches at the end of the axon that contain
neurotransmitters
in the
synaptic vesicles
Function:
Sacs in the terminal buttons that contain the
neurotransmitters
that are released in the synapse
What:
Why?
What:
When resting. interior of neurons are mostly
negative
ions - while outside liquid is mostly
positive
ions
Brief electrical charge that occurs when a
neuron is stimulated
by another neuron
(or our senses)
- causing communication with other neurons
aka.
neural impulse
Why?
1
Receptor sites
on the dendrite were
stimulated
2
That stimulation causes positive ions
(sodium)
to - briefly - rush into the axon - making the neuron relatively
more positive inside
than outside
Sodium
+
Sodium
+
What:
What:
Once threshold is reach - the neuron
fires
- same intensity every time - no in between
You either pushed the lever enough to cause a toilet to flush - or you didn't.
A neuron's threshold works the same
What:
Short time period after a neuron
fires
- when a neuron returns to resting potential and
CANNOT
fire again
Neurotransmitters
What:
Chemicals held in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminals.
Synapse
What:
Small space between the terminal buttons of the
presynaptic
neuron and the receptor sites on dendrites of the
postsynaptic
neuron
Presynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
Terminal buttons/synaptic vesicles
Actual small space
(synaptic space)
Receptor sites on dendrites
da
T
D
at
D
Contains:
D
D
(presynaptic neuron)
(postsynaptic neuron)
1
2
3
During Action Potential:
There are several in the body - with varying effects
Released from those vesicles into the synapse - and is what causes the stimulation of
other

neurons
Neurotransmitters either function as:
Excitatory
Inhibitory
Promotes more action potential
Depresses more action potential
Primary Function:
Mood
regulation
When low levels:
Linked with forms of depression
(for our purposes)
Practical Applications:
Drugs such as Prozac
block
Serotonin
reuptake
- so the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse - and continues to stimulate the
postsynaptic neuron
Reuptake
Primary Function:
Enables
muscle movements

(ex. found in motor neurons) and linked to
memory
When low levels:
Difficulty with coordination and remembering
Practical Applications:
Acetylcholine levels
naturally decrease
as we age -
Alzheimer's Disease
is closely linked to a
significant decrease
in Acetylcholine levels
Primary Function:
Some involvement in
cognitive
processes (ex. problem-solving),
movement
and the brain's
"pleasure system"
When high levels:
Linked to Schizophrenia
When low levels:
Linked to Parkinson's Disease
Practical Applications:
Drugs known to reduce symptom of Schizophrenia -
block
Dopamine stimulation at
receptor sites
Cocaine "works" by
blocking
the
reuptake
of Dopamine
Primary Function:
Most common
excitatoy
neurotransmitter (more than Dopamine/Serotonin combined) - linked to
memoy
formation
When high levels:
Migraines
(Even get a headache after eating Chinese food?)
Primary Function:
When low levels:
Most common
inhibitory
neurotransmitter -
reduces
brain activity - such as when sleeping or
relaxing
after hyperactive
Linked with insomnia
(unable to fall asleep)
Primary Function:
Regulation of alertness and arousal
Practical Applications:
Norepinephrine is linked with
increased heart rate/blood pressure
during moments of fright
Primary Function:
Pain/stress maintenance
Practical Applications:
Release of Endorphins is used to explain the euphoric
"runner's high"
experience after intense exercise
Reuptake
What:
What:
What:
Neurons that
communicate
with muscles and glands - enabling
motor movements
Demo 46:
Acknowledging Neurons
D
Concept:
Trials one and two (ankle vs. shoulder) differed due to the
slight increase
in distance for the message being sent by
sensory neurons
stimulated after being squeezed.
Do Now
Brain tumor
Junk Food
Anabolic steroids
These three things all have something in common - what might it be?
Biological Psychology
What:
Scientific study of how the
body
influences behavior and cognition.
Examples:
Genes
Neurons
Nervous System
86 billion
- with
100 trillion
connections
M
Mnemonic comes with demo in 6.2
Full transcript