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Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

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Joseph Giorlando

on 6 August 2017

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Transcript of Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

Threshold of Excitation
Amount
of stimulation needed for a neuron to
fire

(go from "resting potential" to "action potential")
Once reached:
Refractory Period
Types of Neurotransmitters
Major Neurotransmitters in the Body
Acetylcholine
Dopamine
GABA
Glutamate
Serotonin
Endorphins
Norepinephrine
Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons that connect that central nervous system to the rest of the body
aka.
CNS
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that send incoming
sensory information
from
sensory receptor cells
to the brain/spinal cord for processing
Motor Neurons
Interneurons
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that
enable communication
between sensory neurons
and
motor neurons
Autonomic Nervous System
ex.

heartbeat, digestion
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
When you are challenged:
Makes you alert and ready for action
Parasympathetic Nervous System
aka.
Efferent Nuerons
aka.
Afferent Neurons
S
A
M
E
ensory
fferent
otor
fferent
Medulla
Controls vital
autonomic functions
and communication between the brain and spinal cord.

heartbeat
swallowing
breathing
Pons
Example:
Reticular Formation
Cerebellum
"little brain"
Thalamus
Amygdala
Function:
Hypothalamus
"Maintenance activities"
Hippocampus
Frontal Lobes
Muscle movements controlling speech
Parietal Lobes
Receives sensory input for touch and body position (due to Somatosensory cortex)
Occipital Lobes
Function:
Sends signals throughout our body controlling muscle movement (motor movement)
Motor Cortex
Temporal Lobes
Contains:
Wernicke's Area
Visual cortex
Association Areas
Areas not associated with receiving sensory information or coordinating muscle movements
Pituitary Gland
"Master Gland"
Connection between the nervous system
(hypothalamus)
and endocrine system
Responds to messages from the
sympathetic nervous system
by secreting hormones such as
adrenaline
Case Study
Famous Example:
Lesion
Intentionally destroying brain tissue to see what happens (in animals)
Computerized Axial Tomography
Obtains an image of brain through x-rays from different angles
MRI
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Detects metabolic activity in the brain by injecting radioactive glucose into the patient
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI
Rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating opposite foot in the other direction.
No problem since controlled by two hemispheres
Now, rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating the foot of the same side in the opposite direction
Hemisphere Specialization
Split-Brain Research
Procedure in which the corpus callosum is
cut
- isolating each hemispheres (often to relieve epileptic seizures)
Brain Plasticity
Behavior Genetics
Study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity
(our genes)
and environment
(our environment)
Twin Studies
Method of studying the effects of
heredity
and environment by using sets of identical and fraternal twins
Adoption Studies
Heritability
The extent to which the
differences among people
are attributable to
genes
Evolutionary Psychology
Study the origins of behavior and mental processes
emphasizing
the
adaptive
or
survival
value of such traits
Unit 6:
Biological Bases of Behavior

Goals
Essential Task 6-1:
Essential Task 6-2:
Essential Task 6-3:
Essential Task 6-4:
Essential Task 6-5:
Essential Task 6-6:
Essential Task 6-7:
Essential Task 6-8:
Essential Task 6-9:
Identify the basic parts of the neuron (dendrites, cell body, axon, myelin sheath, terminal buttons, synaptic vesicles, and receptor sites) and types of neurons (motor neuron, inter neuron and sensory neuron).
Describe the electric process of neural firing including resting potential, action potential, threshold of excitation, all-or-none law, and refractory period.
Describe the chemical process of transmitting a signal between neurons with specific reference to the synapse (synaptic vesicles, synaptic cleft and receptor sites), neurotransmitters, and reuptake.

Describe the function and disorders related to key neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, acetylcholine, GABA, and norepinephrine).

Describe the subdivisions and functions of the central nervous system:

I. Central Nervous System
A. Brain

i. Brain Stem
Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum,
and the Thalamus

ii. Limbic System
Hypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampus

iii. Cerebral Cortex
(Left and Right Hemispheres and the
corpus callosum)
Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe,
and the Frontal Lobe
Primary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory
Cortex
Wernicke's Area and Broca's Area
B. Spinal Cord
Describe the subdivisions and functions of the peripheral nervous system:

II. Peripheral Nervous System
A. Somatic Nervous System
B. Autonomic Nervous System
i. Sympathetic Nervous System
(Fight or Flight)
ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System
(Rest and Digest)

Identify key glands of the endocrine system and describe their effects on behavior.
Detail historical and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research such case studies like Phineas Gage, split-brain research, structural imaging (CAT Scans and MRIs), and functional imaging (PET scans and fMRIs).
Explain how heredity and environment work together to shape behavior with specific attention to heritability and gene-environment interaction.
Structure of the Neuron
D
endrites
A
xon
T
erminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicle
Dendrites
Axon
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Dendrite
Receptor Sites
Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Electrical
Resting Potential
Action Potential
When a neuron is
not
transmitting or receiving a message
Resting Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Neural Communication
Chemical
Action Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Threshold
Refractory Period
All-or-None Law
Categories
Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Functions:
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Brain Stem and Cerebellum
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Lobes
Cortexes
Association Areas
Peripheral Nervous System
Endocrine System
Studying the Brain
Brain Imaging
Structure
Function
Case Study
Lesion
Hemisphere Specialization
Other Case Studies
MRI
CAT/CT Scan
fMRI
PET Scan
EEG
Behavior Genetics
Heritability
Studying Genetics
Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
Function:
Regulation of
arousal
and
sleep
- likely origin of dreaming
Coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Relays
sensory stimulation
(except smells)

from receptor cells
(ex. cones)
to the cerebral cortex of the brain for processing
Somatosensory Cortex
Function:
Auditory sensory information
Auditory cortex and
Function:
Contains:
Motor Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex and Broca's Area
Muscle movements
(due to
Motor Cortex
)
and planning/judgment/decision making
(due to
Prefrontal Cortex
)
Broca's Area
Pons
Reticular Formation
Medulla
Cerebellum
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Motor Cortex
Sensory Cortex
Emotions
- and
"flight or fight response"
(fear and aggression)
hunger/thirst
sex drive
body temperature
Function:
Formation of long-term memory from short-term memory
(remember Clive?)
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands
Pituitary Gland
Somatosensory Cortex
Adrenal Glands
Major Glands
DAT Way
Function:
Types of Neurons
Receives information from other neurons at
receptor sites
- and transmits it through to rest of the neuron (
DAT
Way)
What:
Sites on the surface of the dendrites sensitive to a chemical called
neurotransmitters
Function:
Cell Body
Responsible for transmitting messages received by dendrites to other neurons (or even muscles) through the
terminal buttons
Function:
Fatty substance around the axon - for the purpose of
quickening the speed
of communication
Side Note:
Breakdown has been well connected with Multiple Sclerosis - and some evidence suggests may also be the case with Alzheimer's
Function:
Branches at the end of the axon that contain
neurotransmitters
in the
synaptic vesicles
Function:
Sacs in the terminal buttons that contain the
neurotransmitters
that are released in the synapse
What:
Why?
What:
When resting. interior of neurons are mostly
negative
ions - while outside liquid is mostly
positive
ions
Brief electrical charge that occurs when a
neuron is stimulated
by another neuron
(or our senses)
- causing communication with other neurons
aka.
neural impulse
Why?
1
Receptor sites
on the dendrite were
stimulated
2
That stimulation causes positive ions
(sodium)
to - briefly - rush into the axon - making the neuron relatively
more positive inside
than outside
Sodium
+
Sodium
+
What:
What:
Once threshold is reach - the neuron
fires
- same intensity every time - no in between
You either pushed the lever enough to cause a toilet to flush - or you didn't.
A neuron's threshold works the same
What:
Short time period after a neuron
fires
- when a neuron returns to resting potential and
CANNOT
fire again
Neurotransmitters
What:
Chemicals held in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminals
What:
Small space between the terminal buttons of the
presynaptic
neuron and the receptor sites on dendrites of the
postsynaptic
neuron
Presynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
Terminal buttons/synaptic vesicles
Actual small space
(synapse/synaptic cleft)
Receptor sites on dendrites
da
T
D
at
1
Contains:
2
3
(presynaptic neuron)
(postsynaptic neuron)
1
2
3
During Action Potential:
Neurotransmitters
stimulate
the
receptor sites
like
"keys"
into
"locks"
Released from those vesicles into the synapse - and is what causes the stimulation of
other

neurons
Neurotransmitters either function as:
Excitatory
Inhibitory
Promotes more action potential
Depresses more action potential
Primary Function:
Mood
regulation
When low levels:
Linked with forms of depression
(for our purposes)
Practical Applications:
Drugs such as Prozac
block
Serotonin
reuptake
- so the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse - and continues to stimulate the
postsynaptic neuron
Reuptake
Primary Function:
Enables
muscle movements

(ex. found in motor neurons) and linked to
memory
When low levels:
Difficulty with coordination and remembering
Practical Applications:
Acetylcholine levels
naturally decrease
as we age -
Alzheimer's Disease
is closely linked to a
significant decrease
in Acetylcholine levels
Primary Function:
Some involvement in
cognitive
processes (ex. problem-solving),
movement
and the brain's
"pleasure system"
When high levels:
Linked to Schizophrenia
When low levels:
Linked to Parkinson's Disease
Practical Applications:
Drugs known to reduce symptom of Schizophrenia -
block
Dopamine stimulation at
receptor sites
Cocaine "works" by
blocking
the
reuptake
of Dopamine
Primary Function:
Most common
excitatoy
neurotransmitter (more than Dopamine/Serotonin combined) - linked to
memory
formation
When high levels:
Migraines
(Even get a headache after eating Chinese food?)
Primary Function:
When low levels:
Most common
inhibitory
neurotransmitter -
reduces
brain activity - such as when sleeping or
relaxing
after hyperactive
Linked with insomnia
(unable to fall asleep)
Primary Function:
Regulation of alertness and arousal
Practical Applications:
Norepinephrine is linked with
increased heart rate/blood pressure
during moments of fright
Primary Function:
Pain/stress maintenance
Practical Applications:
Release of Endorphins is used to explain the euphoric
"runner's high"
experience after intense exercise
Reuptake
Synapse
What:
What:
What:
Neurons that
communicate
with muscles and glands - enabling
motor movements
Demo 46:
Acknowledging Neurons
D
Concept:
Trials one and two (ankle vs. shoulder) differed due to the
slight increase
in distance for the message being sent by
sensory neurons
stimulated after being squeezed.
Do Now
Brain tumor
Junk Food
Anabolic steroids
These three things all have something in common - what might it be?
Biological Psychology
What:
Scientific study of how the
body
influences behavior and cognition.
Examples:
Genes
Neurons
Nervous System
86 billion
- with
100 trillion
connections
M
Mnemonic comes with demo in 6.2
M
M
sy
NAPS
e
Demo 47:
Communication Within a Neuron
D
All-or-None-Law
Resting potential
Action potential
Threshold of excitation
Explain how the dominoes (books) represent:
Refractory Period
One book falls - they all fall
Books have POTENTIAL to tip over - just need stimulation about the threshold
The amount of stimulation needed to tip book one over
Falling books
Tipped over books CANNOT cause action potential - unless set back up
Part I
Part II
Without Myelin
Concept:
Being able to toss the
sheep ball
between students in the class line
increased
the speed. The tossing vs. no tossing trials illustrates the impact of myelin sheath on communication
WITHIN
the axon - or as we will call it the
mylein sheep
M
Myelin
She
ath
Myelin
Sheep
(think about the demo)
With
Myelin
Ne
urons are
N
ormally
Ne
gative
Think
RE
st - the time period where the neuron gets to
RE
set to be
RE
ady to
RE
do
RE
fractory Period
RE
set
Period
M
Steps Involved
da
T D
at
aka.
synaptic cleft
Candy Neuron
Supplies
Label the parts of the neuron upon completion
Sample with different candy
M
M
EXCIT
atory
Excit
es action potential
INHIBIT
ory
Inhibit
s action potential
M
Sr. Rotten
Think
rotten
for mood
Ace
t
ylc
ho
li
ne (
A
for
A
lzheimer's)
"
Ace

t
he
ho
le in o
ne
"
Need
MUSCLE
movement and
MEMORY
of the golf course to do that
M
Mr. G has a
DOPE
bookshelf.

Books are a
pleasure

Try not to bring
TOO many
when skiing
Try not to bring
TOO few
when at the park
SCHI
zophrenia
PARK
inson's
nore
PINE
phrine
Heart goes nuts when
PINE
tree falls in front of you
M
M
M
PHINE
for mo
rPHIN
e
Take morphine for
P
AI
N
relief during surgery
need
GLU TO MAKE
an exciting project
Glutamate
M
Makes you wanna
GABA
a pillow
M
What:
Absorption of neurotransmitters in the synapse by the sending neuron after stimulating the receiving neuron
Re
uptake
RE
to
RE
absorption
M
Release into synapse
Extra is reabsorbed
Neuron is experiencing resting potential - with
n
aturally
n
egative interior

Stimulation occurs at the
receptor sites
on that neuron's
dendrites
(
D
at way) from a sensory input or the
neurotransmitters
from another neuron

Resting Potential
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Stimulation Occurs
Neuron changes from
RESTING
potential to
ACTION
potential as electrical impulse is caused by rush of positive sodium ions

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Above threshold of excitation?
All-or-None Law
takes effect - once the positive ions rush into the axon - it cannot be stopped

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Action Potential Moves
DAT
Way

Action potential travels DAT way - and is sped up in the axon by
myelin sheath

(myelin sheep)

Quick!
Once the
action potential
finishes traveling DA
T
way - to the
terminal buttons
-
synaptic vesicles
carrying
neurotransmitters
release them into the
synapse
to stimulate the next
neuron
(at the
receptor sites
of its
dendrites
)

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Action Potential Causes Release of Neurotransmitters
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Receptor Sites on Next Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Reuptake
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Receptor Sites on Next Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Once stimulated - those neurotransmitters are reabsorbed through
reuptake

Positive Sodium Ions
+
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Positive sodium ions
rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
1
2
3
4
5
6
Myelin
M
Pon
s for
Pon
d
Relaxing nap at the pond
Function:
Region of the pons - contributes to
alertness
and filtering what is
selectively attended.
Damage could
cause coma
M
Function:
M
Function:
M
Function:
M
M
Function:
Examples:
links nervous system and endocrine system
(more on this later)
What:
Bodies fast communication system - divided into
central
and
peripheral
nervous systems
What:
re
TICUL
ar formation
Alert when
tickled
MED
ulla -
MED
al
Medal over heart/lungs (vital functions)
cere
BELL
um
balancing on a
BELL
t
HAL
AM
us
M
Hypo
thalam
us
Hyper
Hal and Amy
M
hippo
CAMPUS
Memory is needed on college
campus
Amy
g
dala
An
G
ry
Amy
Wernicke's Area
M
Visual sensory processing
Contains:
M
Contains:
Function:
aka.
sensory cortex
Function:
What:
M
M
M
M
Function:
Role in interpreting written and spoken speech
When damaged:
SENSitive
Hal
and
Am
y
Also:
Eating, Drinking and... cuddling
Step into the shoes of a doctor for a moment...
Create three ways
you could test for a properly functioning cerebellum.
TEMPO
ral
Tempo
for music - and located where your ears are located!
Wernicke's
Aphasia
(cannot understand language)
Function:
When damaged:
Broca's
Aphasia
(cannot perform muscle movements necessary to speak)
M
BRO
ca's area/aphasia
BRO
do you even lift?
(muscles)
o
CC
ipital lobe
"Eyes in the back of you head."
o
ipital
Function:
Registers and processes body touch and movement sensations - larger regions for areas with higher
sensitivity
Contributes to why humans are most advanced than mice
(larger cerebral cortex for more association areas)
Importance:
Prefrontal Cortex
What:
Example of an association area - located in the front of the frontal lobe
Function:
Roles in complex
cognitive
processes - decision making, judgment, planning and personality characteristics
Motor
= movement
Sensory
= Senses
Roll the dice
1-3:
Pictionary
4-6:
Charades
Step One:
(No talking - all acting)
(No talking - all drawing)
Goal:
Depict a function/behavior influenced by the region of the brain
Step Two:
Draw a card (then return to deck upon completion) - your teammate has 20 seconds to solve
(1-10)
(11-20)
Checking the
FRONT
door - you have to think - "Should I open it?"
(
front
al lobe responsible for decision making/movement)
parietal
Think about a
PIRANHA
biting you
(thus sense of touch)
Discovered:
Carl Wernicke
c
Discovered:
Paul Broca
c
What:
Series of neurons that
connect
that
brain
to the rest o the body
Carries messages for
motor movement
from the brain (sent via
motor cortex
) to internal organs/muscles (via
motor neurons
)
Carries sensory input (ex. touch) to the brain (via
sensory neurons
)
1
2
3
Enables reflexes -
WITHOUT
motor movement message from the brain - due to
interneurons
in the spinal cord
What:
What:
What:
What:
What:
Responsible for bodily functions that are
NOT
knowingly controlled
M
M
Part of the autonomic nervous system - most active when you are afraid or
aroused
by
expanding

energy
Dilates pupils
Accelerates heartbeat
Inhibits digestion
Relaxes bladder
Stimulates release of norepineprine and adrenaline
1
2
3
4
5
M
Part of the autonomic nervous system - most active when you are
relaxing
and
saving

energy
When active:
1
2
3
Opposite of Sympathetic Nervous System
Slows heartbeat
Stimulates digestion
Contracts bladder (stimulates urination)
"Fight or Flight"
"Rest and Digest"
M
Endocrine System
What:
Collection of glands controlled by the
hypothalamus
that produce hormones
Hormones
Sent through the
bloodstream
(and
not
at synapses)
Longer lasting effects
Regulate many body functions (
ex.
growth, sexual function, mood, sleep, etc.)
1
2
3
M
Function:
Preparing you for
"fight or flight"
M
Function:
Hormones produced regulate the other glands
Also:
Secretes growth hormones
(while seeping)
Function:
Secretes hormone
(melatonin)
that controls sleep/wake cycle
Pineal Gland
M
Pineal Gland
M
Periphery
- on the sides - which is were all these neural connections go
AUTO
nomic - automatic functions
Use as the opposite of the mnemonic for "para"sympathetic
Para
professionals in the classroom and
para
legals both work to
CALM
things down
(either in school or at a law firm)
PARA
sympathetic
(sympathetic is the opposite - without a "para")
en
DOC
rine
Doc
s work with
blood
- make
longer lasting
changes
PIT

UIT
ary
PIT
- At the pit or core of all glands
UIT
- looks like
"unit"
- for growth hormones
Adrenal
-
Adrenal
ine - Amps you up
Pine
al
Enables movement of skeletal muscles with
motor neurons
that you
CAN
control
"I'll go get
SOM
e."
M
Opening the fridge - you voluntary control
Pine
Bed
(sleeping)
Phineas Gage's frontal lobe damage
Flashback Friday
Unit 2:
Research Methods
What:
Studying a single individual - often due to unique brain characteristics
What:
What:
Understanding that specific cognitive tasks are
"localized"
in one hemisphere over the other
Psychology Myth Alert:
NO
-
neither
is defended by empirical evidence (real observable evidence)
So does that mean people are "Left" vs. "Right" brained?
Is it because we only use 10% of our brain?
What it really means:
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
Primary Functions:
Language
Logic
Controlling
RIGHT
side of body
(Wernicke AND Broca's Area are ONLY in the left hemisphere)
1
2
3
L
for
L
eft
L
for
L
ogic/
L
anguage
Primary Functions:
Controlling
LEFT
side of body
Spatial awareness
M
1
2
Who:
Michel Gazzaniga
Roger Sperry
c
What:
Revealed:
Localization of cognitive tasks - as shown when input in the
left visual field
is processed by
ONLY
the
right visual cortex

(in the right occipital lobe)
and resulted in the
failure to say the word
Demo 48:
Hemisphere Controlling Opposite Side
D
Step One:
Step Two:
Concept:
Step two was virtually impossible because the motor cortex in the left hemisphere was responsible for sending the messages to muscles in BOTH the right arm/left (for rightys) - where in step one BOTH hemispheres were at work
Demo 49:
Split-Brain
1.
Focus on the green dot - in a moment I am going to flash two objects on the screen
2.
Use both hands to draw what you see - at the same time (right hand object on right/left hand object on left)
Concept:
An intact corpus callosum made this task very difficult unlike split-brain patients
What:
Concept that when damaged - the brain can try and regrow neural dendrites to "rewire" new connections
This happens normally - and a
LOT
when younger - such as when we learn
What:
What:
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
What:
Multiple MRIs taken back-to-back to note changes in function
PET Scan
What:
Electroencephalogram
EEG
Most common sl
ee
p research method - by recording brain activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp (measures neural activity)
What:
CAT/CT Scan
M
sl
EE
p
EE
g
M
Through the use of magnetic fields and radio waves - produces a detail computer-generated image of the brain
FUN
ction
PET S
can
IN
jection
sl
EE
p
cat
S
(
S
for
S
tructure)
M
What:
What:
0.0
1.0
0.0
= Variance is unrelated to genes
1.0
= Variance is entirely based on genes
0.5
.9 = Height
.7 = IQ Scores
What:
Why?
Identical twins (monozygotic)
share the same genes - while
fraternal twins (dizygotic
) do not
If a behavior is influenced by genes -
identical twins will show stronger correlations
than fraternal twins
What:
Another way to study genetics - taking into consideration the role of the environment
Study the correlation between twins reared in
SEPARATE
settings
Why?
Differences would show how important the ENVIRONMENT is
(ex. parenting style, economic status, etc.)
What:
Evolutionary Psychology Foundation Term
What:
Evolutionary process through which
adaptive traits
are passed on to ongoing generations
These traits help animals survive and reproduce
Evolutionary psychologists would say
PHOBIAS OF SNAKES
from unit one are
adaptive
and kept humans alive over time
Why
and
how
did the chicken cross the road?

Using any term from this unit
Groups of 3-4
Group with highest total applications - bonus point of exam
(added later - technically "a lesion" can be unintentional and studied too)
Corpus Callosum
Corpus Callosum
Large collection of axons that
connect
both hemispheres
Function:
Can be cut in order to relieve epileptic seizures
M
corpus callo
SUM
SUM
for addition
(adding both hemispheres)
Full transcript