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Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

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Joseph Giorlando

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

Dendrite
Carries information to the cell body from other neurons
Soma (Cell Body)
Contains nucleus
Axon
Carries information to the next cell
Myelin Sheath
Insulates the axon and speeds up the neural impulse
Terminal Buttons
Form junctions with other cells (never quite touches)
Enlarged area at the end of the axon
Not firing
it is resting
All-or-None Law
- A neuron either fires or it does not
- 1 firing = always the same strength
Intensity
= frequency of action potentials
Threshold
Level of stimulation needed to triggered a neural impulse
Once reached
Action potential travels down the axon to terminal buttons (and other nuerons)
Summation
Many subthreshold depolarizations added together to produce an action potential
ex
. many light taps on a domino
Refractory Period
- The time it takes for positive ions to be pumped out
Absolute Refractory Period
Time period immediately after an action potential
- Another action potential

CANNOT
occur
Relative Refractory Period
Time period after absolute refractory period
- Neuron will only respond to a stronger than normal impulse
Neurotransmitters
Once the action potential reaches the terminal buttons
Triggers release of
neurotransmitters
from the
synaptic vesicle
Bind to receptor sites in receiving neuron exciting or inhibiting the neuron's firing
Reuptake
Sending neuron reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters
Categories of Neurotransmitters
Excitatory
Inhibitory
Activation of receptor site cause
depolarization
and promotes
action potential
Stops stimulation of receptor sites and
depresses action potential
generation
Major Neurotransmitters in the Body
Acetylcholine
- Excitatory
Function:

motor movement
When blocked:
paralysis
Too little:
Alzheimers
Dopamine
- Inhibitory
Function:
Pleasure, alertness
Lack:
Too Much:
Parkinson's disease
Schizophrenia
GABA
- Most common
inhibitory
neurotransmitter in the brain
Function:
Hunger and Sleep
Too Little:
seizures, insomnia
Too much:
Sleepy
"calming neurotransmitter"
Glutamate
- Most common
excitory
neurotransmitter in the brain
Function:
Memory
Too much:
migraines, seizures
Serotonin
-
Inhibitory
in pain pathways
Function:
sleep, mood, appetite
Too little:
depression
Too much:
anxiety
Endorphins
Function:
Pain Control, pleasure feelings
"morphine within"
- Inhibitory
"Too much":
Runner's High
Norepinephrine
Too little:
Depression
Too much:
"Flight or Fight"
- Excitatory
Function:
Alertness
Nervous System
- Speedy
- Electrochemical communication network
nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons that connect that CNS to the rest of the body
(CNS)
Sensory Neurons
Carry messages from
body's tissues and sensory receptors

brain and spinal cord for processing
Motor Neurons
Carry instructions from the CNS
Body's muscles and glands
Interneurons
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord
Enable communication:
CNS
Motor/Sensory Neuron

Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Controls:
Glands
Muscles of internal organs
ex.
heartbeat, digestion
Operates "
autonom
ously"
Somatic Nervous System
SNS
Enables voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System
- Expends energy
arousing
ex.
accelerated heartbeat
- When you are challenged:
Makes you alert and ready for action
Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Conserves energy
calming
ex.
lowering heartbeat
PNS
"Rest and Digest"
"fight or flight"
aka.
Efferent Nuerons

aka.
Afferent Neurons

S
A
M
E
ensory
fferent
otor
fferent
Medulla
It controls autonomic functions and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord.

heartbeat
breathing
Pons
Functions:
Function:
Coordinate movement
Reticular Formation
Nerve network
within brain stem
Function:
Controlling arousal
Cerebellum
"little brain"
Attached to rear of the brainstem
Function:
Voluntary movement and coordination
Thalamus
"Sensory Switchboard"
Transmits messages to the sensory areas of the cortex
(more on this later)
(except smell)
Doughnut-shaped
"Emotion Center"
fear
aggression
sex
food

Amygdala
Almond shaped neural clusters
Functions:
Hypothalamus
Directly below thalamus
(hypo)
"Maintenance activities"
Functions:
hunger/thirst
sex drive
body temperature
also...
links nervous system to
endocrine system
through the
pituitary gland
more on those later
Hippocampus
Function:
Formation of long-term memory
Cerebral Cortex
Interconnected neural cells that covers cerebral hemispheres
Frontal Lobes
Primary Function:
Decision-making
Muscle movements
Contains:
Motor Cortex
Broca's Area
muscle movement controlling speech
Parietal Lobes
Contains:
Receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital Lobes
Primary Function:
Visual processing
sends signals throughout our body controlling muscle movement
Motor Cortex
Temporal Lobes
Primary Function:
Auditory sensory information
Contains:
Wernicke's Area
Interprets written and spoken speech
Contains:
Visual cortex
Auditory cortex
Association Areas
Areas not associated with receiving sensory information or coordinating muscle movements
ex.
much of the parietal lobes
ex.
forward part of frontal lobe -> judgment, planning
Corpus Callosum
Large band of neural fibers connecting both hemispheres
Endocrine System
Sends hormones as messages
bloodstream
instead of synapses
hormones produced by
glands
similar to neurotransmitters (nervous system) but much
slower
and
longer lasting
Pituitary Gland
"Master Gland"
Produces hormones that:
regulate other glands
growth hormones
Influences:
blood pressure
body growth
sexual behavior
Adrenal Glands
Secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
Function:
Endocrine glands above kidneys
Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands release hormones
Adrenal Glands
release adrenaline
adrenaline
increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar
"fight or flight"
Case Study
ex. Phineas Gage
1848:
Frontal Lobe damage
Became profane and dishonest
Lesion
Experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Purpose:
Overall brain activity
No direct access
Records electrical activity across the brain's surface
CAT Scan/CT Scan
Computerized Axial Tomography
X-rays create:
Can determine brain damage (ex. tumor)
3D image of brain
MRI
Uses magnetic field and radio waves
computer-generated image of brain
PET Scan
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Shows brain activity
Uses radioactive glucose to determine location of brain activity
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI
Compares successive MRIs
Shows function and structure by measuring movement of blood molecules within the brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Thyroid Gland
Function:
Secretes hormones that control metabolism
Affects:
weight
energy/alertness
Hemisphere Fun
Rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating oppoisite foot in the othet direction.
No problem since controlled by two hemispheres
Now, rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating the foot of the same side in the opposite direction
Hemisphere Specialization
Left
Right
Speaking
Calculating
Language Processing
Logic
Visual-spatial processing (thinking in pictures)
Quick-thinking
Splitting the Brain
Procedure in which the two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly of the corpus callosum)
Allows for research into hemisphere specialization
Most common sleep research
Brain Plasticity
Following traumatic brain injuries
Brain's ability to modify itself
More likely in younger ages
Rerouting connections to avoid damaged dendrites
Ben Carsen Video
Behavior Genetics
Study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment
(aka. nature vs. nurture)
Twin Studies
Twin Studies
Studying the effects of heredity and environment on two sets of twins (identical or fraternal)
heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Separated Twins
Studying comparing identical twins raised separaretly from birth
Adoption Studies
Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest that adoptees (who are biologically unreleated)
tend to be more different
from their adoptive parents and siblings than their biological parents.
Heritability
The extent to which the differences among people are attributable to genes.
Proportion:
0.0 - 1.0
0.0 = Genes do not contribute at all
.9 = Height
90% of the variance among people is due to genetics
Environmentability
The extent to which the differences among people are attributable to the environment
Same 0.0 - 1.0 proportion
Nature and Nurture
Some human traits are fixed
two eyes
Genes provide choices for an organism when environmental variables change
Gene-Environment Interaction
Natural Selection
Evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations
These traits help animals survive and reproduce
Those organisms that are best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce
Thus... pass genes along
Evolutionary Psychology
Study the origins of behavior and mental processes
emphasizing the adaptive or survival value of such traits
Human Traits
A number of human traits have been identified as a result of pressures afforded by natural selection.
ex. Stranger Anxiety
What is the benefit for infants to fear strangers when they become mobile?
Another ex: phobias (spiders, snakes)
Other Human Traits with Adaptive Values
Language
All children acquire language without specific instruction (in all cultures at about the same time)
Brains are predisposed for language
Unit 6:
Biological Bases of Behavior

Goals
Essential Task 6-1:
Essential Task 6-2:
Essential Task 6-3:
Essential Task 6-4:
Essential Task 6-5:
Essential Task 6-6:
Essential Task 6-7:
Essential Task 6-8:
Essential Task 6-9:
Identify the basic parts of the neuron (dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons, synaptic vesicles, and receptor sites.)
Describe the electric process of neural firing including resting potential, action potential, threshold of excitation, all-or-none law, subthreshold excitations, sumnation, absolute refractory period, relative refractory period.
Describe the chemical process of transmitting a signal between neurons with specific reference to the synapse (synaptic vesicles, synaptic cleft and receptor sites), neurotransmitters, and reuptake.

Describe the function and disorders related to key neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, acetylcholine, GABA, and norepinephrine).

Describe the subdivisions and functions of the central nervous system:

I. Central Nervous System
A. Brain
i. Brain Stem
Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum,
and the Thalamus
ii. Limbic System
Hypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampus
iii. Cerebral Cortex (Left and Right Hemispheres and the
corpus callosum)
Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe,
and the Frontal Lobe
Primary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory
Cortex
Wernicke's Area and Broca's Area
B. Spinal Cord
Describe the subdivisions and functions of the peripheral nervous system:

II. Peripheral Nervous System
A. Somatic Nervous System
B. Autonomic Nervous System
i. Sympathetic Nervous System
(Fight or Flight)
ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System
(Rest and Digest)

Identify key glands of the endocrine system and describe their effects on behavior.
Detail historical and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research such case studies like Phineas Gage, split-brain research, structural imaging (CAT Scans and MRIs), and functional imaging (PET scans and fMRIs).
Explain how heredity and environment work together to shape behavior with specific attention to heritability and gene-environment interaction.
Structure of the Neuron
Dendrites
Axon
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicle
Dendrites
Axon
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Dendrite
Receptor Sites
Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Neural Communication
Electrical
Resting Potential
Action Potential
Neuron is not transmitting information
Resting Potential
Axon
"
N
egative Ions inside the
N
euron is
N
atural"
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Neural Communication
Processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signal
"The messenger"
Nerve Cell
Neurons
Chemical
Action Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
- Brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Neural impulse
- Movement of a positive ion into the axon
Why?
Receptor sites were stimulated
Threshold
Refractory Period
Summation
All-or-None Law
Neurotransmitters
Categories
into the synapse
Process of Chemical Neural Communication
Nervous System
reflex movements
Spinal Cord
Carry messages to and from the brain
Functions:
Cable of nerves connecting the brain to the rest of the body
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Brain
Hindbrain
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Lobes
Corteses
sends signals throughout our body controlling muscle movement
Sensory Cortex
Association Areas
Corpus Callosum
Peripheral Nervous System
Endocrine System
Glands
Studying the Brain
Brain Imaging
Structure
Function
Case Study
Lesion
Split-Brain Research
Brain Plasticity
MRI
CAT/CT Scan
fMRI
PET Scan
EEG
Hemisphere Specialization
Behavior Genetics
Heritability
Environmentability
How Behavior Genetics are Studied
Twin Studies
Adoption Studies
Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
Adaptive Traits
- Influences your ability to sleep
cut seizures
Somatosensory Cortex
Pons
Reticular Formation
Medulla
Cerebellum
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Motor Cortex
Sensory Cortex
"Fight or Flight"
aggression, anger and fear
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathethic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands
Thyroid Gland
Pituitary Gland
Full transcript