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Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

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Joseph Giorlando

on 22 December 2017

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Transcript of Unit 6: Biological Bases of Behavior

Threshold of Excitation
Amount
of stimulation needed for a neuron to
fire

(go from "resting potential" to "action potential")
Once reached:
Refractory Period
Types of Neurotransmitters
Major Neurotransmitters in the Body
Acetylcholine
Dopamine
GABA
Glutamate
Serotonin
Endorphins
Norepinephrine
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory/motor neurons
OUTSIDE
of the brain
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that send incoming
sensory information
from
sensory receptor cells
to the brain/spinal cord for processing
Motor Neurons
Interneurons
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that
enable communication

between
sensory/motor neurons
Autonomic Nervous System
ex.

heartbeat, digestion
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
When you are challenged:
Parasympathetic Nervous System
aka.
Efferent Nuerons
aka.
Afferent Neurons
S
A
M
E
ensory
fferent
otor
fferent
Medulla
Controls
vital
automatic functions
and communication between the brain and spinal cord.

heartbeat
swallowing
breathing
Example:
Pons and Reticular Formation
Cerebellum
Thalamus
Amygdala
Function:
Hypothalamus
"Maintenance activities"
Hippocampus
Frontal Lobes
Muscle movements controlling speech
Parietal Lobes
Touch processing

(due to Somatosensory cortex)
Occipital Lobes
Function:
In frontal love - sends signals controlling muscle movement
(via motor neurons)
Motor Cortex
Temporal Lobes
Contains:
Wernicke's Area
Visual cortex
Association Areas
Areas
not
associated with receiving sensory information/muscle movements
Pituitary Gland
"Master Gland"
Secretes
adrenaline
Lesion
Studying results of brain damage
Computerized Axial Tomography
MRI
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Brain Function
Hemisphere Specialization
Split-Brain Research
Corpus callosum is
cut
- to relieve epileptic seizures
Brain Plasticity
Behavior Genetics
Study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity
(our genes)
and environment
(our environment)
Heritability
The extent to which the
differences among people
are attributable to

genes
Evolutionary Psychology
Study the origins of behavior and mental processes
emphasizing
the
adaptive
or
survival
value of such traits
Unit 6:
Biological Bases of Behavior

Goals
Essential Task 6-1:
Essential Task 6-2:
Essential Task 6-3:
Essential Task 6-4:
Essential Task 6-5:
Essential Task 6-6:
Essential Task 6-7:
Essential Task 6-8:
Essential Task 6-9:
Identify the basic parts of the neuron
(dendrites, cell body, axon, myelin sheath, terminal buttons, synaptic vesicles, and receptor sites)
and types of neurons
(motor neuron, inter neuron and sensory neuron).

Describe the electric process of neural firing
including resting potential, action potential, threshold of excitation, all-or-none law, and refractory period.

Describe the chemical process of transmitting a signal between neurons
with specific reference to the synapse (synaptic vesicles, synaptic cleft and receptor sites), neurotransmitters, and reuptake.

Describe the function and disorders related to key neurotransmitters
(serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, acetylcholine, GABA, and norepinephrine).

Describe the subdivisions and functions of the central nervous system:

I. Central Nervous System
A. Brain

i. Brain Stem
Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum,
and the Thalamus

ii. Limbic System
Hypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampus


iii. Cerebral Cortex
(Left and Right Hemispheres and the
corpus callosum)
Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe,
and the Frontal Lobe
Primary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory
Cortex
Wernicke's Area and Broca's Area

B. Spinal Cord
Describe the subdivisions and functions of the peripheral nervous system:

II. Peripheral Nervous System
A. Somatic Nervous System
B. Autonomic Nervous System
i. Sympathetic Nervous System
(Fight or Flight)
ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System
(Rest and Digest)

Identify key glands of the endocrine system and describe their effects on behavior.
Detail historical and contemporary research strategies and technologies
that support research such case studies like Phineas Gage, split-brain research, structural imaging (CAT Scans and MRIs), and functional imaging (PET scans and fMRIs).

Explain how heredity and environment work together to shape behavior
with specific attention to heritability and gene-environment interaction.

Structure of the Neuron
D
endrites
A
xon
T
erminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicle
Dendrites
Axon Terminal
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Terminal Buttons
Synaptic Vesicles
Receptor Sites
Dendrite
Receptor Sites
Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Electrical
Resting Potential
Action Potential
When a neuron is
not
transmitting or receiving a message
Resting Potential
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Neural Communication
Chemical
Action Potential/Neural Impulse
Axon
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
Threshold
Refractory Period
All-or-None Law
Categories
Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Brain Stem and Cerebellum
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Lobes
Cortexes
Association Areas
Peripheral Nervous System
Endocrine System
Studying the Brain
Brain Imaging
Structure
Function
Case Study
Lesion
Hemisphere Specialization
fMRI
Behavior Genetics
Heritability
Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
Coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Sends
sensory stimulation
(except smell)

to the cerebral cortex of the brain for processing
Somatosensory Cortex
Function:
Auditory sensory processing
Auditory cortex and
Function:
Contains:
Motor Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex and Broca's Area
Muscle movements
(due to
Motor Cortex
)
and

planning/complex thinking/judgment/decision

making

(due to
Prefrontal Cortex
)
Broca's Area
Pons/Reticular Formation
Medulla
Cerebellum
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Motor Cortex
Sensory Cortex
Emotions
- and
"flight or fight response"
(fear and aggression)
hunger/thirst
sex drive
body temperature
Function:
Formation of long-term memory
(remember Clive?)
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Adrenal Glands
Pituitary Gland
Somatosensory Cortex
Adrenal Glands
Major Glands
DAT Way
Function:
Types of Neurons
Receives information from
other
neurons at
receptor sites
- and transmits it through to rest of the neuron (
D
AT
Way)
What:
Sites on the surface of the dendrites sensitive to a chemical called
neurotransmitters
Function:
Cell Body
Responsible for transmitting messages received by dendrites to other neurons through the
terminal buttons

(D
A
T Way)
Function:
Fatty substance around the axon - for the purpose of
quickening the speed
of communication within the neuron
Side Note:
Breakdown has been well connected with Multiple Sclerosis - and some evidence suggests may also be the case with Alzheimer's
Function:
Branches at the
end
of the axon that contain
neurotransmitters
in the
synaptic vesicles

(DA
T
Way)
Function:
Sacs
in
the terminal buttons that contain the
neurotransmitters
that are released in the synapse
What:
Why?
What:
When resting. interior of neurons are mostly
negative
ions - while outside liquid is mostly
positive
ions
Brief electrical charge that occurs when a
neuron is stimulated
by another neuron - causing communication with other neurons
Why?
1
Receptor sites
on the dendrite were
stimulated
2
Stimulation causes positive ions
(sodium)
to - briefly - rush into the axon - making the neuron
more positive inside
than outside
Sodium
+
Sodium
+
What:
What:
Once threshold is reach - the neuron
fires
- same intensity every time - no in between
You either pushed the lever enough to cause a toilet to flush - or you didn't.
A neuron's threshold works the same
What:
Short time period after a neuron
fires
- when a neuron returns to resting potential and
CANNOT
fire again
Neurotransmitters
What:
Chemicals held in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminals
What:
Small space between the terminal buttons of the
presynaptic
neuron and the receptor sites on dendrites of the
postsynaptic
neuron
Presynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
Terminal buttons/synaptic vesicles
Actual small space
(synapse/synaptic cleft)
Receptor sites on dendrites
da
T
D
at
1
Contains:
2
3
(presynaptic neuron)
(postsynaptic neuron)
1
2
3
During Action Potential:
Released from those vesicles into the synapse - causing the
stimulation
of
other
neurons
Excitatory
Inhibitory
Causes more action potential
Stops action potential
Primary Function:
Mood
regulation
Low levels:
Linked with depression
Applications:
Prozac
block
Serotonin
reuptake
- to boost mood
Reuptake
Primary Function:
Enables
muscle movements

(
via
motor neurons) and linked to
memory
Low levels:
Difficulty with movement and memory
Applications:
Alzheimer's Disease
is closely linked to a
significant decrease
in Acetylcholine receptors
Primary Function:
Brain's
"pleasure reward system"
High levels:
Linked to Schizophrenia
Low levels:
Linked to Parkinson's Disease
Practical Applications:
Cocaine "works" by
blocking
the
reuptake
of dopamine
Primary Function:
Most common
excitatory
neurotransmitter - crucial for normal cognitive functioning
Primary Function:
Low levels:
Most common
inhibitory
neurotransmitter -
reduces
brain activity -
(
ex.
sleeping/relaxing)
Linked with insomnia
(unable to fall asleep)
Primary Function:
Applications:
Linked with
increased heart rate/blood pressure
during moments of fright
Primary Function:
Pain/stress maintenance
Euphoric
"runner's high"
experience after intense exercise
Reuptake
Synapse
What:
What:
What:
Neurons that
communicate
with muscles and glands -
enabling

motor movements
Demo:
Acknowledging Neurons
D
Concept:
Trials one and two (ankle vs. shoulder) differed due to the
slight increase
in distance for the message being sent by
sensory neurons
stimulated after being squeezed.
Do Now
Brain tumor
Twinkies
Epileptic seizure
These three things all have something in common - what might it be?
Biological Psychology
What:
Scientific study of how the
body
influences behavior and cognition.
Examples:
Genes
Neurons
Nervous System
M
M
sy
NAPS
e
Demo:
Communication Within a Neuron
D
All-or-None-Law
Resting potential
Action potential
Threshold of excitation
Explain how the dominoes (books) represent:
Refractory Period
One book falls - they all fall
Books have POTENTIAL to tip over - just need stimulation about the threshold
The amount of stimulation needed to tip book one over
Falling books
Tipped over books CANNOT cause action potential - unless set back up
Part I
Demo:
Myelin Sheath (Sheep)
Without Myelin
Concept:
M
Myelin
She
ath
Myelin
Sheep
(think about the demo)
With
Myelin
Ne
urons are
N
ormally
Ne
gative
Think
RE
st - the time period where the neuron gets to
RE
set to be
RE
ady to
RE
do
RE
fractory Period
RE
set
Period
M
Steps Involved
da
T D
at
aka.
synaptic cleft or gap
M
M
EXCIT
atory
Excit
es action potential
INHIBIT
ory
Inhibit
s action potential
M
Sr. Rotten
Think
rotten
for mood
M
"
Ace
the
hol
e in one"
Ace
tylc
hol
ine (
A
for
A
lzheimer's)
Need
MUSCLE
movement and
MEMORY
of the golf course
DO
pa
MINE


DO
nut
MINE
!

Don't
eat TOO
many skiing
Don't
eat TOO
few
at the
park
SCHI
zophrenia
PARK
inson's
nore
PINE
phrine
PINE
tree falls!

ALERT!
M
M
M
en
dorphins
need

GLU TO MAKE
an
exciting
project
Glutamate
M
Makes you wanna
GABA
a pillow
M
What:
Absorption of neurotransmitters in the synapse by the sending neuron
after
stimulating the receiving neuron
Re
uptake
RE
to
RE
absorption
M
Release into synapse
Extra is reabsorbed
Neuron is experiencing resting potential - with
n
aturally
n
egative interior

Stimulation occurs at the
receptor sites
on that neuron's
dendrites
(
D
at way) from the
neurotransmitters
from another neuron

Resting Potential
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Stimulation Occurs
Neuron changes from
RESTING
potential to
ACTION
potential as electrical impulse is caused by rush of positive sodium ions

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Above threshold of excitation?
All-or-None Law
takes effect - once the positive ions rush into the axon - it cannot be stopped

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Action Potential Moves
DAT
Way

Action potential travels DAT way - and is sped up in the axon by
myelin sheath

(myelin sheep)

Quick!
Once the
action potential

finishes traveling DA
T
way - to the

terminal buttons
-
synaptic vesicles
release
neurotransmitters
into the
synapse
to stimulate the next
neuron

+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Action Potential Causes Release of Neurotransmitters
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Receptor Sites on Next Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
Positive sodium ions rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Reuptake
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Receptor Sites on Next Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Once stimulated - those neurotransmitters are reabsorbed through
reuptake

Positive Sodium Ions
+
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Positive sodium ions
rush into the axon - as if the "floodgates opened"
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
Receptor Sites on Dendrite
Postsynaptic Neuron
Terminal Buttons containing Synaptic Vesicles
Presynaptic Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Receptor Site
1
2
3
4
5
6
Myelin
Function:
Regulation of
arousal, alertness,
dreaming?


- d
amage could cause coma
M
Function:
M
Function:
M
Function:
M
M
Function:
Examples:
What:
re
TICUL
ar formation
Alert when
tickled
MED
ulla -
MED
al
Medal over heart/lungs
(vital functions)
cere
BELL
um
balancing on a
BELL
t
HAL
AM
us
M
Hypo
thalam
us
Hyper
Hal and Amy
M
hippo
CAMPUS
Memory is needed on college
campus
Amy
g
dala
An
G
ry
Amy
Wernicke's Area
M
Visual sensory processing
Contains:
M
Contains:
Function:
aka.
sensory cortex
Function:
What:
M
M
M
M
Function:
UNDERSTANDING written/spoken speech
When damaged:
SENSitive
Hal
and
Am
y
Eating, Drinking and... cuddling
TEMPO
ral
Tempo
for music - and located where your ears are located!
Wernicke's
Aphasia
(cannot understand language)
Function:
When damaged:
Broca's
Aphasia
(cannot perform muscle movements necessary to speak)
M
BRO
ca's area/aphasia
BRO
do you even lift?
(muscles)
o
CC
ipital lobe
"Eyes in the back of you head."
o
ipital
Function:
In parietal lobe - processes body touch - larger regions for areas with higher sensitivity
Why humans are most advanced than mice
(larger cerebral cortex for more association areas)
Importance:
Motor
= movement
Sensory
= Senses
FRONT
door - you have to think -

"Should I open it?"
(
front
al lobe responsible for decision making/movement)
parietal
Think about a
PIRANHA
biting you (thus sense of touch)
What:
1
What:
What:
What:
What:
What:
Responsible for bodily functions that are
NOT
knowingly controlled
M
M
Active when you are afraid or
aroused
by
expending

energy
Dilates pupils
heartbeat
digestion
Relaxes bladder
adrenaline
1
2
3
4
5
M
Active when you are
relaxing
and
saving

energy
When stimulated:
1
2
3
heartbeat
digestion
Contracts bladder
"Fight or Flight"
"Rest and Digest"
M
Endocrine System
What:
Glands controlled by the
hypothalamus
that produce hormones
Hormones
Bloodstream
(
not

at synapses)
Longer lasting effects
1
2
M
Function:
Preparing you for
"fight or flight"
M
Function:
Hormones produced regulate the other glands - also secretes growth hormones
Function:
Secretes
melatonin
-
controls sleep/wake cycle
Pineal Gland
M
Pineal Gland
M
Periphery
- on the sides
AUTO
nomic - automatic
Use as the opposite of the mnemonic for "para"sympathetic
Para
chute goes DOWN - calm DOWN
PARA
sympathetic
(sympathetic is the opposite - without a "para")
en
DOC
rine
Doc
s work with
blood

PIT

UIT
ary
PIT
- At the pit or core of all glands
UIT
- looks like
"unit"
- for growth hormones
Adrenal
-
Adrenal
ine
Pine
al
Enables movement of muscles with
motor neurons
that you
CAN
control
"I'll go get
SOM
e."
M
Opening the fridge - you voluntary control
Pine
Bed
(sleeping)
What:
What:
Specific cognitive tasks are
"localized"
in one hemisphere over the other
Psychology Myth Alert:
NO
-
neither

is defended by empirical evidence
(real observable evidence)
So does that mean people are "Left" vs. "Right" brained?
Is it because we only use 10% of our brain?
What it really means...
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
Language
Logic
Controlling
RIGHT
side of body
(Wernicke AND Broca's Area are ONLY in the left hemisphere)
1
2
3
L
for
L
eft
L
for
L
ogic/
L
anguage
Controlling
LEFT
side of body
Spatial/visual awareness
M
1
2
Who:
Michel Gazzaniga
Roger Sperry
c
What:
What:
Ability of brain to regrow neural dendrites spines and
"rewire"
new connections for new functions
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
What:
Multiple MRIs taken back-to-back to note changes in function
PET Scan
Electroencephalogram
EEG
Most common sl
EE
p research method
- records brain activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp
Structural Imaging
M
sl
EE
p
EE
g
What:
What:
0.0
1.0
0.0
= Unrelated to genes
1.0
= Entirely based on genes
0.5
.9 = Height
.7 = IQ Scores
What:
Evolutionary Psychology Foundation Term
What:
Evolutionary process through which
adaptive traits
are passed on to ongoing generations
These traits help animals
survive
and
reproduce
Evolutionary psychologists would say
PHOBIAS OF SNAKES
are
adaptive

and kept humans alive over time
Corpus Callosum
Corpus Callosum
Large collection of axons that
connect
both hemispheres
Function:
Cut to stop
epileptic seizures
M
corpus callo
SUM
SUM
for addition
(adding both hemispheres)
Functions:
Enables reflexes -
WITHOUT
the brain - due to
interneurons
in the spinal cord
3
2
Carries sensory input (ex. touch) to the brain
Carries messages for
motor movement
from the brain
Series of neurons that
connect
that
brain
to the rest o the body
aka.
axon
D
Tossing the
sheep ball

increased
the speed. Showing the impact of myelin sheath on communication
WITHIN
the axon - or as we will call it the
mylein sheep
DOPAMINE RELEASED
Yummy Food
=
Regulation of alertness and arousal
Racing
dolphins
- "runner's high!"
Applications:
Roll 1:
1
- Serotonin
2
- Dopamine
3
- Acetylcholine
4
- Norepinephrine
5
- Endorphins
6
- GABA or Glutamate (opponents pick)
Roll 2:
1 or 2
- Charades (acting - no spoken words)
3 or 4
- Pictionary (no words)
5 or 6
- Monologue (only spoken words)

Examples
CAT/CT Scan
1
2
1
Detects metabolic activity in the brain by injecting
radioactive glucose
What:
2
3
What:
Objective:
Using the terms to know sheet - justify how as many terms as possible answer the following question:
HOW or WHY did the chicken cross the road?
Example:
The chicken's
MOTOR CORTEX
sent the message to walk across (answers HOW).
Full transcript