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Transcript of Hot Climate
> 40° to 45°
Night temp > 5° but can go below freezing
1/5 of earths surface
Dry and Barren
Unbroken sunshine for the whole year round
15° - 30° N & S of the Equator
West side of continents
Often light or short, strong bursts
Some years = no rainfall
desert is the earths driest desert
Q. Why are deserts so dry ?
Hibernia College Dublin
What does Climate mean ?
Made up of weathered rock with humus, water or micro-organisms
Weather conditions differ around the world.
Remain the same for long periods of time.
Calculated using average weather records.
30 or 35 years.
- Inclination of the sun.
Divided into three broad zones - can you guess what they are ???
Whats the main characteristic of a hot climate ?
> Evaporation rates are faster than the rainfall rates
> Sometimes rain evaporates before it hits the ground
Fertile area where water table is reached
Level below which the ground is saturated (totally soaked) with water
Provides moisture for plants to grow
Vegetation is in short supply - why ?
Plants adapt to conditions - long roots
Change to suit environment
- fleshy inside allows storage of water
- waxy coat [prevents loss of moisture]
- also protects tissues from intense sunlight
- shallow roots are spread widely allowing rain water to be absorbed quickly
- sharp spines protect from attack by animals
Animals also adapt - conserving water, food and energy
What animals live in the desert ??
The Camel -
adapts to the heat
- stores fat for use when there is a shortage of food
- long legs keep sand's heat away from their body
- webbed toes spread to help camels walk on the sand
- long hair keeps them warm during cold nights
- Long eyelashes keeps sand out during sandstorms
- nostrils can close tightly to stop sand getting in and out
Nomadic way of life - PASTORALISM - this is moving with camels and goats to find fresh pasture
Very little settled farmers - why ?
Low rainfall = no settled farmers
However some groups may settle where they find a permanent water source
Discovery of _____ in some deserts means they are now seen as places where money can be made.
Tribes are now being forced to settle and work in mining and road building projects.
Tourism is also increasing in desert areas
Beautiful landscape and rock formations
Also offers many recreational attractions
High demand for food and fuel
High birth rate
Pressure on the grassland
'Spread of deserts'
Case study : Sahel Region
Southern end of the Sahara
Edge of the desert
Spreading towards the equator
Human Factors (desertification)
Increase in demand for food = increase in cultivation
Increase in number of animals such as goats and sheep
People are removing the vegetation for cooking and heating
Inadequate drainage/ poor irrigation practices
Cash crops such as coffee are grown for export using fertilisers
Soil is exhausted/left barren
Over-grazing - animals destroy roots
Soil becomes weak/dry as vegetation connects soil together
Leads to flooding which removes top soils and vital minerals
Destroys soil, cannot support vegetation. Dry soil is then blown away
Climatic Factors (desertification)
Grassland changed to desert
Soil no longer fertile
Food production is reduced = famine
People forced to leave their land = migration
Irrigate (water) the soil
Reduce number of animals grazing
Manage farming activities
Re-plant trees (reforestation) to replace the trees removed
Plant trees and shrubs to act as wind breakers
Divide up into groups of two/three
Match up the word (red) with the definition (black)
Go ! :)
Results of Desertification
Solutions to Desertification
Today we will:
Recap on climate
Discuss the hot desert climate
Learn the hot desert characteristics