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Hot Climate

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by

Miss Cummins

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of Hot Climate

Less than 100mm a year
Equatorial,
Hot Desert
and Savanna

Temperature
> 40° to 45°
Night temp > 5° but can go below freezing
Why
??
Hot Climates
Rainfall
1/5 of earths surface

Dry and Barren

Not fertile

Unbroken sunshine for the whole year round

15° - 30° N & S of the Equator

West side of continents
Often light or short, strong bursts
Some years = no rainfall

Atacama
desert is the earths driest desert

Q. Why are deserts so dry ?
Hibernia College Dublin
Miss Cummins
20001160
Climate
What does Climate mean ?
Made up of weathered rock with humus, water or micro-organisms
Soil
Weather conditions differ around the world.

Remain the same for long periods of time.

Calculated using average weather records.

30 or 35 years.

Greek word
Klima
- Inclination of the sun.
Hot Desert
Divided into three broad zones - can you guess what they are ???
HOT
TEMPERATE
COLD
Whats the main characteristic of a hot climate ?
> Evaporation rates are faster than the rainfall rates

> Sometimes rain evaporates before it hits the ground
Oasis
Fertile area where water table is reached

Water table
???
Level below which the ground is saturated (totally soaked) with water

Provides moisture for plants to grow
Flora
Vegetation is in short supply - why ?

Plants adapt to conditions - long roots
Change to suit environment
Cacti
Inside
- fleshy inside allows storage of water

Coat
- waxy coat [prevents loss of moisture]
- also protects tissues from intense sunlight

Roots
- shallow roots are spread widely allowing rain water to be absorbed quickly

Spines
- sharp spines protect from attack by animals
Fauna
Animals also adapt - conserving water, food and energy

What animals live in the desert ??
The Camel -

adapts to the heat
Hump
- stores fat for use when there is a shortage of food
Legs
- long legs keep sand's heat away from their body
Feet
- webbed toes spread to help camels walk on the sand
Hair
- long hair keeps them warm during cold nights
Eyes
- Long eyelashes keeps sand out during sandstorms
Nose
- nostrils can close tightly to stop sand getting in and out
Human Activity
Nomadic way of life - PASTORALISM - this is moving with camels and goats to find fresh pasture

Very little settled farmers - why ?
Low rainfall = no settled farmers

However some groups may settle where they find a permanent water source

Discovery of _____ in some deserts means they are now seen as places where money can be made.
Tribes are now being forced to settle and work in mining and road building projects.
Oil
Tourism is also increasing in desert areas

Beautiful landscape and rock formations

Also offers many recreational attractions
Population Growth
High demand for food and fuel
Rapid growth
High birth rate
Pressure on the grassland
Desertification
'Spread of deserts'
Case study : Sahel Region
Southern end of the Sahara

Edge of the desert

Spreading towards the equator
Human Factors (desertification)
Increase in demand for food = increase in cultivation


Increase in number of animals such as goats and sheep


People are removing the vegetation for cooking and heating


Inadequate drainage/ poor irrigation practices


Cash crops such as coffee are grown for export using fertilisers
Soil is exhausted/left barren
Over-grazing - animals destroy roots
Soil becomes weak/dry as vegetation connects soil together
Leads to flooding which removes top soils and vital minerals
Destroys soil, cannot support vegetation. Dry soil is then blown away
Climatic Factors (desertification)
Grassland changed to desert

Soil no longer fertile

Food production is reduced = famine

People forced to leave their land = migration
Irrigate (water) the soil

Reduce number of animals grazing

Manage farming activities

Re-plant trees (reforestation) to replace the trees removed

Plant trees and shrubs to act as wind breakers
Matching game
Divide up into groups of two/three
Match up the word (red) with the definition (black)
Three minutes
Go ! :)
Key Words
Results of Desertification
Solutions to Desertification
Today we will:
Recap on climate
Discuss the hot desert climate
Learn the hot desert characteristics
Full transcript