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Remix (Consuming Cultures)
Transcript of Remix (Consuming Cultures)
Marcel Duchamp (1919)
"the law regulates 'reproductions' or 'copies.' But every time you use a creative work in a digital context, the technology is making a copy... Every action must then be justified as either licensed or 'fair use.' ...this control is
than the control the law of copyright gave a copyright owner in the analog world... RW culture is thus presumptively illegal."
~ Lessig (98-100)
Brian O'Connor (Stanford student)
Joseph Cornell (1936) "Rose Hobart"
Dara Birnbaum (1978) "Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman"
"the global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies... [and] supported by the practice of cut/copy and paste. [...] Today, Remix (the activity of taking samples from pre-existing materials to combine them into new forms according to personal taste)... plays a vital role in mass communication, especially on the Internet."
~ Eduardo Navas
• what is Lessig's persuasive strategy? who is his audience?
• what is Lessig's position on capitalism and consumer culture?
• what parts of "remix culture" does Lessig privilege? what is left out?
A history of subversive remix video before YouTube: Thirty political video mashups made between World War II and 2005
(1) Works appropriate mass media audiovisual source material without permission from copyright holders, and often rely on the US fair use doctrine or UK fair dealing.
(2) Works comment on, deconstruct, or challenge media narratives, dominant myths, social norms, and traditional power structures—they can be either sympathetic to or antagonistic to their pop culture sources, sometimes both at the same time.
(3) Works transform the original messages embedded in the source material, as well as the source material itself.
(4) Works are intended for general audiences or do-it-yourself (DIY) communities rather than elite, academic, or high-art audiences, and thus tend to use familiar mass media formats such as trailers, television ads, music videos, and news segments as vehicles for the new message.
(5) Works are DIY productions and rely on grassroots distribution methods such as VHS tape duplicating circles, underground screenings, and, eventually, self-hosted Web sites.
"The Lambeth Walk—Nazi Style" by Charles A. Ridley (1941)
"Death Valley Days" (excerpt) by Gorilla Tapes (1984)
"Gulf War: Ground War" by Emergency Broadcast Network (1991)
Apocalypse Pooh" by Todd Graham (1987)
"Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society... When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process alternatively is termed 'enclosure' or more commonly, 'privatization.' ...The commons were traditionally defined as the elements of the environment - forests, atmosphere, rivers, fisheries or grazing land - that are shared, used and enjoyed by all. Today, the commons are also understood within a cultural sphere.
There are a number of important aspects that can be used to describe true commons. The first is that the commons cannot be commodified – if they are, they cease to be commons. The second aspect is that unlike private property, the commons are inclusive rather than exclusive — their nature is to share ownership as widely, rather than as narrowly, as possible. The third aspect is that the assets in commons are meant to be preserved regardless of their return of capital."
copyright = enclosure of the cultural commons
material and immaterial property / communities
community is linked to sharing creativity