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on 30 November 2014

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Transcript of Copy of PHRASAL VERBS

Presented by Khalif Aljumah
Phrasal Verbs
What are phrasal verbs
verb + particle = new meaning
Break down= stop functioning
Ask out = invite on a date
Back up = support, reverse
Call off = cancel
Give up = surrender
Calm down = relax after being angery
Check out = leave a (hotel)
Cross out = draw a line through
put up with = tolerate
Native speakers tend to use phrasal verbs instead of using one verb. why?
Why phrasal verbs
They are used more frequent in informal language, especially in speaking.
It is more appropriate to say
I got up early this morning
than to say
I arose early this morning
This is an informal context
We do not usually use verb phrases.
Instead we tend to use single lexical items.
In formal context ( research)
two or more words
1- The meaning of phrasal verbs is often noncompositional.
I work out at the gym every day.
Why are phrasal verbs challenging
to ESL/EFL students
2- Most non-Germanic languages do not have phrasal verbs.
include English, German, Dutch, Flemish, and the Scandinavian languages.
Germanic languages
Syntactic features of Phrasal Verbs
The Separability of Phrasal Verbs
For transitive phrasal verbs sometimes the particle can be separated from the verb by the direct object and sometimes it cannot.
Separable phrasal verbs
We put away money for our retirement.
We put money away for our retirement.
*We put away it for our retirement.
We put it away for our retirement.
Separation is obligatory when the object is pronoun
Inseparable phrasal verbs:
Some linguists argue that it is due to the fact that what we are calling a particle is really a preposition, and thus would naturally precede its object.
Because the two words appear to have a syntactic affinity and together have a meaning beyond what each word contributes individually, they are considered inseparable phrasal verbs.
I got over the flu.
*I got the flu over.
I got over it.
*I got it over.
Phrasal Verbs that are Always Separated
a few phrasal verbs seem to occur only with the verb and particle separated
How can I get
the message
through to him? (get...through= convey; transmit)
The reason for obligatory separation is presumably to avoid the ambiguity with the inseparable phrasal verbs that have the same form but a different meaning.
Get through the lesson. (get through = finish)
See through his excuse. (see through= not be deceived by)
We'll see this ordeal through together. (see...through= survive)
Syntactic Tests
Distinguishing Phrasal Verbs from Verb+Preposition Sequences
Understand or solve (instead of figure out)
Discover (instead of find out)
Cancel (instead of call off)
Adverb insertion
We turned quickly off the road
* We turned quickly off the light
Phrasal fronting
Up the hill John ran.
*Up the bill John ran.
Only prepositions (not particles) allow
About what does he write?
*Up what does he write?
The light was turned off.
*The road was turned off.
Only particles in separable phrasal verbs
(not prepositions) allow
Verb substitution
The light was extinguished
(=the light was turned off)
NP insertion
We turned the light off.
*We turned the road off.
John ran up the hill.
The base of these tests is the fact that
a preposition makes a natural unit with the NP object that follows it,
whereas a particle makes a natural unit with the verb that precedes it.
We turned off the lights.
Used more as prepositions
O'Dowed, 1994
Used more as particles
with, of, for, from
to, in, on, about, by
through, around, over, off, across along
up, out, down, away, back
He looked up the word. (phrasal verb)
He looked up the road. (verb+preposition)
Phonological Test
Particle may receive stress, whereas preposition usually doesn't:
This is not always the case:
He looked up the road, not down.
ESL/EFL students are taught to put stress on the content word so they tend to stress the head verb rather than the particle
*I planned to turn it down
Semantic Categories of Phrasal Verbs
sit down
stand up
hand out
take down
carry away
throw away
Literal Phrasal Verbs
Meaning is not transparent but it is not idiomatic either
Aspectual Phrasal Verbs

John took off.
- use of on and along with activity verbs
Her speech ran on and on.
- use of away with activity verbs with the nuance that the activity is "heedless"
They danced the night away.
-use of around with activity verbs to express absence of purpose
They goofed around all afternoon.
-use of through with activity verbs to mean from beginning to end
She read through her lines in the play for audition.
Use of over with activity verbs to show repetition
He did it over and over again until he got it right.
( to show that the action continues)
(to signal a beginning state)
uses particles up, out, off, and down to show that the action is complete
- turns an activity verb into an accomplishment
He drank the milk up.
-reinforces the sense of goal orientation in an accomplishment verb
He closed the suitcase up.
-adds durativity to a punctual achievement verb
He found out why they were missing.
Figuring out the meaning by combining the separate meanings of its parts seems difficult, if not impossible.
Idiomatic Phrasal Verbs
Stauffer (1996) states that native speakers can understand phrasal verbs that they have never before encountered because they understand the underlying logic of the language.
John ran up the bill.
John ran up the hill.
John run up the hill
John run up the bill
Bill? up?
amount of money
Teachers can guide their ESL/EFL students through analyzing the component parts of idiomatic phrasal verbs and then looking for a logical relationship within a specific context.
one phrasal verb has more than one meaning
Polysemous Phrasal Verbs
phrasal verbs are common in informal register, although not completely absent from formal discourse.
Level of Formality
Register, level of formality
Certain phrasal verbs are associated with a particular field for which there are no concise alternatives
I need to check out by 1 P.M.
It would be difficult to describe the same action using any other verb.
check out a hotel room
Upon leaving hotel, I have to go to the front desk, give the clerk my key, and pay my bill.
Airline personnel often favor Latin verbs (one lexical verb) over phrasal verbs.
extinguish all smoking material, prior to landing
To assist nonnative speakers of English comprehend announcements.
NOT put off your cigarette.
Principle of Dominance
The Issue of Phrasal Verbs Separability
Pronoun is nondominant
A dominant constituent in a sentence is the one that a speaker has chosen to highlight, to draw listener attention
So it does not occupy the final position in the sentence
(old information)
He poured his heart out.
He poured out his heart.
He poured it out.
*He poured out it.
He Poured
a brand new can of green paint that on sale
He poured out a brand new can of green paint that on sale.
lots of information
Sentence with Separable Phrasal Verbs,
Direct and Indirect Objects
Separable phrasal verbs
If the indirect object is dominant
comes last
John Paid back his loan to the bank.
John Paid his loan back to
the bank.
If he direct object is dominant , it comes last.
John paid the bank back his loan.
? John paid back the bank his loan.
John paid the bank his loan back.
How do we practice the separability of phrasal verbs
come across
I came across this old book in the library. (discover by chance)
Ali came across well at the convention. (make an impression)
Student: He looked at the word in the dictionary.
Recast would be useful here.
Teacher: So, he looked up the word in the dictionary.
Play on Activity
Give students article that contains phrasal verbs.
They have to underline the phrasal verbs in the article.
Then they have to replace each phrasal verb with a standard verb.
then they exchange the articles with each other and try to score another student article.
exchanging articles helps students to see their own errors and evaluate others errors.
Consciousness Raising Task
Students' job is to work out rules for the separability of phrasal verbs from example sentences they are given in which separability can and cannot be applied.
He looked the word up .
He looked it up.
He looked up the word.
He looked up it.
Collaborative output task
What about
the inseparable phrasal verbs
& the phrasal verbs that are always Separated?
The Garden Path Strategy
giving students information about structure without giving them the full picture
Input flooding
Very useful in classroom sitting
Total Physical Response
Giving input through commands;
stand up, turn around, turn on the light, turn off the light, go back to your chair, sit down
First the teacher read the routine and mime the actions with the students.
Later, the students can give the routine and mime it.
Routine Activities
Telephone Routine
I want to call up my classmate. I look up her number in the telephone book and I write it down. I pick up the receiver and I dial the number. The line is busy so I hang up . I will call back later.
to exercise
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Noughts and Crosses
to exercise
That's it
Kate tends to bottle up her emotions
Examples for you
instead of expressing them.
You can't stamp out drug-taking
just by putting more people into prison.
(to stop by force or authority)
(to bottle up = to restrain)
My brother and I always fought over the prize in the box of cereal.
Adverb insertion:
My brother and I always fought furiously over the prize.
Phrase fronting:
Over the prize we fought.
Over what did we fight?
fight over is
verb + preposition
Do You have any questions ?
Examples to discuss
*We called our neighbors on.
*I looked the report that Phyllis wrote in Dallas last week over.
*I gave back Larry the money.
?He showed just as all the work done.
*I came with a severe cold down.
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