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The Golden Age Of China: The Tang & Song Dynasties

Spring Semester 2012, Mr. Jones/ Mr Mishoe Global 9 Honors
by

Alexis Jameson

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of The Golden Age Of China: The Tang & Song Dynasties

The Tang & Song Dynasties A golden age refers to a time of peace, prosperity, and cultural advancements throughout an entire empire or kingdom. According to this definition, China did and didn't experience a golden age under the Tang and Song Dynasties. Though they made advancements in technology, the arts, and were prosperous, peasants revolted out of anger, religion was split, and the government was in a state of disorder. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=tang+dynasty+map&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=hQ6VQrO23Vt_oM:&imgrefurl=http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/Chinese_dynasties/Tang_Dynasty_Map.htm&docid=B71cV-Zp9sBKQM&imgurl=http://www.nationsonline.org/maps/chinese_dynasty_maps/Tang_Dynasty_Map.jpg&w=852&h=532&ei=rVWZT7CRAsXx0gGqzfCKCg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=845&vpy=155&dur=1901&hovh=177&hovw=284&tx=151&ty=117&sig=109658648427559717996&page=1&tbnh=111&tbnw=178&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:77&biw=1440&bih=775 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=song+dynasty+map&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=P26dDWSltltxnM:&imgrefurl=http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/Chinese_dynasties/Song_Liao_Xixia_Map.htm&docid=yoE5gP8cFIwZkM&imgurl=http://www.nationsonline.org/maps/chinese_dynasty_maps/Song_Dynasty_Map.jpg&w=852&h=512&ei=s1mZT7gbovHSAbWjyKkK&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=358&vpy=157&dur=39&hovh=174&hovw=290&tx=264&ty=75&sig=109658648427559717996&page=1&tbnh=109&tbnw=182&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:71&biw=1440&bih=775 1. Maps 2. Government 3. Role of Women/ Family 4. Reforms 5. Religion Religion of the Renaissance 6. Emperors and Their Achievements Renaissance Emperors 7. Education Renaissance Education 8. Trade 9. Agriculture -established bureaucrats ensured their families and even failed candidates from their families received high government positions
-Yang Guifei and her greedy family had excessive ambitions which angered rival cliques at court and caused popular unrest
-Xuanzong's infatuation with Yang led him to neglect state affaris, which resulted in economic distress and military weakness, which left government unable to deal with disorders effectively
-the political divisions led nomads to invade and governors became independent rulers
-worsening economic conditions led to revolts in the 9th century, some uprisings headed by peasants
-Zhao Kuangyin's failure to defeat the Liao dynasty set precedent for weakness
-restrictions on wealth and power for the Buddhists grew to open persecution under Emperor Wuzong Renaissance Government -Henry VII restricted the power of the English church
-declared himself ruler of the church by taking the church from the pope's control
-Catholics who refused to accept King Henry's Act of Supremacy were executed http://www.google.com/imgres?q=king+henry&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=-etj_V_EAe7FPM:&imgrefurl=http://www.picturesofengland.com/England/famous/King_Henry_VIII&docid=P_02YCzPedBdgM&imgurl=http://www.picturesofengland.com/img/M/1002852.jpg&w=250&h=358&ei=8yajT6qTO67G0AG_v70k&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1119&vpy=254&dur=2725&hovh=269&hovw=188&tx=96&ty=175&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=127&tbnw=89&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:27,s:0,i:191 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=king+emperor+wuzong&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=vyjFxd3oxARiAM:&imgrefurl=http://history.cultural-china.com/en/46History2704.html&docid=-Rxg6sBYDcxVYM&imgurl=http://history.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/images/zimages/2b82e6bdb97ad148ae3ea574d6127f56.jpg&w=150&h=113&ei=fCejT9_BFvCw0QGK14Qd&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=162&vpy=366&dur=333&hovh=90&hovw=120&tx=128&ty=55&sig=101392397433473340065&page=2&tbnh=90&tbnw=120&start=19&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:19,i:117 -women remained subordinagte to men
-Neo- Confucians stressed the women's role as a homemaker and mother
-Neo- Confucians excluded women from education that would allow them to gain any civil service positions
-subjected to foot binding which limited their mobility and made it easier for men to confine them to their home http://www.google.com/imgres?q=tang+era+foot+binding&start=103&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=O-5c5Vwrr2aVRM:&imgrefurl=http://www.lilina.org/category/uncategorized/page/2/&docid=8EId9EGj8lxfSM&imgurl=http://traditions.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/upload/upfiles/2009-12/01/chinese_makeup_for_lips61e10bf31dd9d40c179f.jpg&w=470&h=352&ei=YC6jT9OUCePX0QH40u07&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=318&vpy=328&dur=5073&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=161&ty=152&sig=101392397433473340065&page=5&tbnh=139&tbnw=185&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:103,i:98 -made by Wang Anshi to ward off the inevitable collapse of the Song dynasty
introduced cheap loans and government assisted irrigation projects to encourage agriculture expansion
taxed the landlord and scholarly classes
replaced armies with mercenary forces
tried to reorganize university education and reorient the examination system -Confucianists and Daoists envied the successes of Buddhism and called it alien
-Confucian scholar administrators convinced Tang rulers that Buddhism posed and economic challenge to the imperial order
-Buddhism weakened after the rule of Emperor Wuzong -Protestant Reformation
-Lutherans and Calvinists split from the Catholic church http://www.google.com/imgres?q=monastery&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=QT6kW2ecNuO1GM:&imgrefurl=http://www.oddee.com/item_93581.aspx&docid=AqPo8ivrb0Gv-M&imgurl=http://www.oddee.com/_media/imgs/articles/a167_Grigoriou.jpg&w=450&h=338&ei=pzOjT-i9Hajc0QHuqpQx&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=497&vpy=329&dur=452&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=137&ty=216&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=123&tbnw=171&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0,i:167 Li Yaun -he emerged victor over the fight for succesion for the throne after Yangdi's death
-Duke of Tang
-laid the basis for the Tang dynasty's golden age Emperor Xuanzong -initially took interest in political and economic reforms
-placed highly capable officials in high positions
-patron of the arts
-enjoyed music and played himself Zhao Kuangyin -took control of deteriorating empire and proclaimed himself emperor
-honest and able general
-reunited China under a single dynasty http://www.google.com/imgres?q=li+yuan+tang+dynasty&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=VT1xlam1J0arWM:&imgrefurl=http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/culture/emperor-taizong.htm&docid=wb82q6ltLStyUM&imgurl=http://www.chinahighlights.com/image/travelguide/history/tangtaizong-b.gif&w=250&h=272&ei=wzajT5rpLI630QHmi9Uu&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=262&vpy=289&dur=203&hovh=217&hovw=200&tx=140&ty=94&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=126&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0,i:84 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=emperor+xuanzong+tang+dynasty&um=1&hl=en&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=BPXkc1Ql6YJcIM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Xuanzong_of_Tang&docid=DWn08PAtVfhdTM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Tang_XianZong.jpg/220px-Tang_XianZong.jpg&w=220&h=280&ei=TjejT-OWCPS80QGoxJgI&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=126&vpy=136&dur=973&hovh=224&hovw=176&tx=102&ty=103&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=112&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:67 Queen Elizabeth -made reforms
-compromised protestant and catholic practices
didn't call herself the supreme head of the church
reaffirmed that the monarch was the "supreme governor" over spiritual matters in England
restored version of the Book of Common Prayer
accepted a moderate protestant doctrine
allowed English to replace Latin in church service http://www.google.com/imgres?q=queen+elizabeth+1&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=jPm1Z3z8tZ_x_M:&imgrefurl=http://englishhistory.net/tudor/beeslychapterone.html&docid=Qv_9hxqRVBXw_M&imgurl=http://englishhistory.net/tudor/eliz1-ermine.jpg&w=400&h=478&ei=nTujT_D6K8Pg0QHh7fFH&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=275&vpy=278&dur=6266&hovh=245&hovw=205&tx=148&ty=170&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=123&tbnw=103&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0,i:156 -examination systems separated the scholar- gentry class, or well educated officals, from the uneducated
-needed to gain high office positions because the emperor wanted loyal and well educated officials
-new academies and libraries
-educated people were expected to practice the art of skillfull writing and painting
-a well educated man dabbled with varying degrees of success in many fields
-after a har days work, accomplished officials were expected to spend their evenings composing songs on his lute, create new paintings, or compose new poems
-Neo- Confucians, who believed cultivating personal morality was the highest goal for humans, encouraged education -humanists encouraged education
-ideal renaissance man was a "jack of all trades"
-Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael were all admired for their artistic talents and abilities in many feilds http://www.google.com/imgres?q=leonardo+da+vinci&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=PZqfb-x_UvsdcM:&imgrefurl=http://www.kingsgalleries.com/leonardo-da-vinci/&docid=5ITIh5tKqWQfLM&imgurl=http://www.kingsgalleries.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Leonardo-Da-Vinci.jpg&w=404&h=490&ei=QUCjT4ORK4bG6AH4yYX6Dw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=661&vpy=292&dur=2806&hovh=247&hovw=204&tx=139&ty=141&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=121&tbnw=125&start=0&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0,i:164 -Silk road was safer
-Tang conquests in central Asia and building of Great Canal incread commercial expansion
-exported rice, cloth, fine silk, textiles, porcelain, and paper were traded with Persia, Japan, southeast Asia, and centers of Islamic civilization
-Chinese junk ships were used on water routes
-money economy increased
-credit vouchers "flying money"
-deposit shops were an early form of a bank http://www.google.com/imgres?q=chinese+junks&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=o7yBbo948f1dVM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junk_(ship)&docid=CmnKxFS6jm4beM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/ChineseJunkKeying.jpg/220px-ChineseJunkKeying.jpg&w=220&h=173&ei=7UGjT9-zGKq16AGooxg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=150&vpy=207&dur=1695&hovh=138&hovw=176&tx=104&ty=102&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=125&tbnw=159&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:135 -peasants encouraged to migrate to uncultivated areas
-state regulated irrigation and embankment systems(prevented flooding) which advanced agrarian expansion
-Great Canal made it possible for peasants who grew specialized crops, such as tea or silkworms, to market their produce over much of the empire New Technology- Gunpowder -one of the most important technological advances was explosive powder
-at first had little impact on warfare because for centuries the Chinese used it to make mixtures for fireworks, which delighted emperors
-used on junks in rockets for self defense
-by the late Song, powder was used by imperial armies in grenades and bombs that were hurled at the enemy by catapults http://www.google.com/imgres?q=ancient+chinese+fireworks&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=BJXaPhxinb1edM:&imgrefurl=http://my-ecoach.com/modules/custombuilder/popup_printable.php%3Fid%3D17268&docid=fwm7EKfawX-jvM&imgurl=http://my-ecoach.com/online/resources/11365/fireworks.jpg&w=272&h=220&ei=wESjT6anLPK26QGM0oj_Dw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=610&vpy=190&dur=78&hovh=176&hovw=217&tx=138&ty=82&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=130&tbnw=161&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:113 Architecture- Pagodas -commissioned by Empress Wu
-Tang era architecture
-steep sloping tiled roofs with upturned corners
-reserved for people of higher rank like the scholar gentry class
-painted tiles of green or yellow meant for families of high status or power http://www.google.com/imgres?q=chinese+pagodas&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4SKPT_enUS411US412&biw=1366&bih=637&tbm=isch&tbnid=XI0qNQ60-ySCKM:&imgrefurl=http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/units.php%3Funit%3D%2520Non-Western%2520Arts&docid=M3HqcyhycHGAAM&imgurl=http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/images/Pagoda.jpg&w=300&h=407&ei=SUWjT-S8D8Ty6QGWjOke&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1107&vpy=259&dur=2972&hovh=262&hovw=193&tx=91&ty=107&sig=101392397433473340065&page=1&tbnh=146&tbnw=112&start=0&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0,i:153
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