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Mesoamerica and South America
Transcript of Mesoamerica and South America
Mayan- The Mayans developed a hierarchical government ruled by kings and priests. They lived in independent city-states consisting of rural communities and large urban ceremonial centers. There were no standing armies, but warfare played an important role in religion, power and prestige. Religion was woven into all facets of daily life and was the major unifying factor of the civilization.
Inca- The Inca government was called the Tawantinsuyu. It was a monarchy ruled by a single leader called the Sapa Inca. Sapa Inca - The emperor or king of the Inca Empire was called the Sapa Inca, which means "sole ruler". He was the most powerful person in the land and everyone else reported to the Sapa Inca. His principal wife, the queen, was called the coya.
Aztec- The Aztec government was similar to a monarchy where an Emperor or King was the primary ruler. They called their ruler the Huey Tlatoani. The Huey Tlatoani was the ultimate power in the land. They felt that he was appointed by the gods and had the divine right to rule. He decided when to go to war and what tribute the lands he ruled would pay the Aztecs. When an emperor died, the new emperor was chosen by a group of high ranking nobles. Usually the new emperor was a relative of the previous emperor, but it wasn't always his son. Sometimes they chose a brother who they felt would be a good leader.
Mayan- The Maya are a native Mesoamerican people who developed one of the most sophisticated cultures in the Western Hemisphere before the arrival of the Spanish. Mayan religion was characterized by the worship of nature gods (especially the gods of sun, rain and corn), a priestly class, the importance of astronomy and astrology, and the building of elaborate pyramidical temples.
Inca- The belief system of the Incas was polytheistic, this meant that the Incas worshipped many gods and believed that there was a god for every aspect of the Earth such as the sun, the moon, wind, lightning, rain and all the other elements of the Earth. Although the Incas believed in many gods they believed that their creator was Viracocha who was worshipped before Inca times by people in Peru. At the time it was believed that Vircocha created the earth and all living creatures and because of this many of the Inca beliefs and faith system is based on what was created by Viracocha.
Aztec- Ancient Aztec religion was a complex interaction of gods, dates, directions and colours. It seems that most of the preoccupation in the religion had to do with fear of the nature, and a fear of the end of the world. According to ancient Aztec religion, it took the gods 5 tries to create the world. These attempts were foiled because of infighting among the gods themselves. After he was knocked from his exalted position by rivals, the first creator, Tezcatlipoca, turned into a jaguar and destroyed the world. Under similar circumstances, the world was created and then destroyed with wind, and then two floods.
-flat-topped pyramidal platforms with ramps and/or steps leading to the summit
-symmetrical and geometrical layouts
Aztec males- Maxlatl usually worn over a cloak or cape called Tilmati (Tilma) sandals were a sign of status.
Aztec women- Blouse called huipil and a skirt called cueitl with a sash called a cihua.
Mayan males- cotton breechcloth wrapped around his waist and sometimes a sleeveless shirt
Mayan women- traje combined with a huipil and a corte, a long woven wrap around skirt.
Inca males- sleeveless tunic, a large cloak over shoulders
Inca women- shirt and skirt combo with a sash like the Mayan women.
Men (children) taught basic skills, (teens) went to school called Telpuchcall, learned history and religion, the art of war and fighting, and civic duties. Then they attended either Calmecac or Cuicacalli. Calmecac was for children of a noble class that were connected to the temples and Cuicacalli was more military training.
Women usually taught from home and was basic training for marriage. Stated spinning at 4 and cooking at 12.
The Macehualtin were trades people, peasants, and builders. Children of this class attended local school (Telpochcalli). This is where they learned basic occupational skills.
Fruits, Fish and wild game, Turkey meat and other domesticated animals, wheat/ grains, vegetables ( such as avocado or some cacti ), beans, made steamed foods in clay pots.
-no official currency
-prestige items = high class items
-subsistance items = daily items/necessities
-primarily based on agriculture and trade
-no official currency
-goods were bartered
-traded agriculture, minerals, and fresh water
-although bartering was allowed, the leaders regulated the distribution of each product
-no official currency
-women liked to weave shirts, baskets, hats, and hammocks
-cofradias are men's fraternities that hold dances
-dances represent something important such as a story from their gods
-played board games and sports
-loved various sports & board games (often games had a religious significance & sometimes the game would be part of a religious ritual)
-ullamaliztli was an important sport played with a rubber ball. The object is to get the ball through stone hoops or it the markers on the side of the court. The trick is that you're only allowed to use your elbows, knees, hips and head.
-Patolli was a board game based on betting. Your piece would move depending on the number you rolled.
-had many festivals. An average person was said to spend up to 120 days a year participating in festivals. The government provided the religious spectacles, dancing, music, and massive quantities of food and chicha (beverages often alcoholic)
-women liked to weave
-the also made pottery and played a variety of musical instruments such as flute
-Qhuche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, and Mam are some different dialects spoken in the mayan civilization
-different dialects are shown through the similar, but slightly different hieroglyphs
-known as Nahuatl
-originally written with a pictographic script which isn't formal
-they learned from speaking and there wasn't formal writing structure such as an alphabet
-couldn't write but used a system of strings knots to record things
-would rather speak
mayan-central america which is now Guatemala, Belize, and south Mexico
- varies from mountainous areas to semi arid plains
- very susceptible to hurricanes from the Caribbean
- February- May very dry season including warm air
-lowlands produced crops important for trade
-volcanic highlands produced materials to create metal also important for trade
-rainfall as high as 160 inches per year
Incan- a strip that lies north to south on the western side of South America
-incans made their home high in the Andes Mountains and build bridges to connect the mountain peaks out of vine
- to stop invasion they just had to burn two bridges and their invaders would freeze or starve to death
- Amazon jungle and desert coastline acted as natural barriers
- expanded to Chile, Argentina, and Colombia from Peru and Bolivia
Aztec- -located in the middle of the mexico valley to lake texacona and had many marshes and islands
-precious golds and stones held in the lake
-islands provided defense from invaders
mayan-invented numerical system, mayan hieroglyphics, mayan calender, rubber products, water proof cloth, glue
incan-invented flute,drum, terrace farming, specialized professions,
class status by gold and silver jewelry ownership, quipu (math calculator)
-wrote in string
aztec-invented math, canoe, calendar, special medicines (ointments), drills, popcorn and chocolate
had no metal or bronze, so mead weapons and tools out of chert and sidian
Roles of Women
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mayan- was included in economic, governmental, and farming jobs as well as raising and caring for the children
very important for cooking and rituals
all women involved in making textiles: noblewomen used dye and higher fiber cloth
not considered as equal but were respected
incan- went to special school to learn the theology of incas “house of chosen”
-the woman could then either be a servant to the temple or marry (could not marry above her social class)
only allowed to gather food, cook, care for children, take care of the animals and weave
aztec- the women were either free or slaves
free women could care for children and weave but could also hold a job as a merchant, vendor, or secretary
the slaved women would work for the women so the freed women were free of work
the slaved women would cook, clean, and be involved in textile making
•the slaved womens children would be born a slave
Tigris and Euphrates Valley
Tigris and Euphrates Valley- in this civilization it was harder to live because of shortage on food. What would happen is that the water from the river would run down hill into all of the farmers crops, and the food supply. Then once when the water gets evaporated it leaves behind minerals on the top layer of the soil, causing the plants to be poisoned and the food to all die along with people
Indus Valley- Just like the Nile valley, flooding was a problem with the Indus Valley. farmers would have to move to tops of hills and build barriers out of earth or stone. This can cause major problems because the water makes it crucial for living, taking out lands, killing livestock, and demolishing crops.
Huang He Valley
Huang He- It hardly ever rained causing food to be difficult to grow. Along with the economic status, the Yellow River Valley in particular lacked written language for an extensive time, not allowing us to truly know what happened or how the civilization truly functioned.
Nile River Valley- The main negative aspects of the Nile Valley were that people who lived there were always at the Nile River's mercy. Due to the rise and fall of the river, houses were washed away, food sources lost, and livestock were lost.