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Transcript of Earth Movements
The Earth is a solid mass, but not quite spherical.
The Earth is divided into 4 distinct layers.
Rocky outer layer made up of basalt and granite.
6-56 miles thick.
Covers the entire surface of the Earth.
Directly below the crust.
1,800 miles thick.
Composed of magma that flows in slow-moving currents.
1,367 miles thick
Consists of molten iron, nickel and silicon.
Center of the Earth
777 miles thick
Composed of iron and nickel
Though the temperature is more than 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the metal doesn't melt due to the intense pressure.
Heat radiates out from the center.
Continent: one of six large masses on Earth
Magma: thick liquid rock (molten/melted) that makes up the material of the mantle
Model: smaller or larger version of an object used to represent an object
Geologist: a scientist who studies the composition, physical features, and history of the crust of the Earth or other solid heavenly bodies. (Planets, etc.)
The Earth has 2 types of crust
The part of the Earth's surface that contains the continents,
and all of the landforms.
The part of the Earth's crust that is beneath the oceans. It is similar to the continental crust as it also has mountains, valleys an plains.
-A mountain range
in the middle of the ocean.
-A deep, narrow valley in the
Scientists have learned a great deal about the history of the Earth from clues provided by rocks. What do you think some of these clues might be?
ROCKS: Clues to the Past
Rocks are made from various materials from the Earth called minerals.
CLUE #1: Type of rock
...the way it was
The type of rock is determined by 3 factors:
...the type of minerals
found in it.
...the amount of
each mineral in it.
CLUE #2: Age of rock
By measuring the
amounts of minerals
in a rock sample, scientists can determine about when the rock was formed.
CLUE #3: Glacial deposits
Clue #4: Fossils
Fossils are the remains or imprints of an organism that lived long ago.
were like at the location where
the rocks were formed.
**REVEAL what the conditions were like
at the place where the rock was formed.
**Reveal the presence of a glacier, and the direction it was headed.
**REVEAL the kinds of organisms that lived in a certain area
a long time ago.
The amount of matter in an object.
The transfer of heat energy in
in liquids or gases due to a difference in density.
Scientists believe that
the solid crust is moving
slowly on the liquid
PANGEA = all lands
Movement of continents. About 5cm/year.
How do the continents move?
PLATES IN MOTION
Pieces of the Earth's crust.
1. Why don't plates that
move apart leave a gap in
2. What happens to plates
that move toward
OCEAN FLOOR SPREADING
The process by which new ocean floor is created and mid-ocean ridges form at the boundary between plates that are moving apart.
As plates move apart, magma from the mantle
wells up into the gap in the Earth's crust and
hardens into new rock. This process, called
, creates new crust in the form of
Oceanic crust (plates) is made
up of this dark, heavy rock.
The continental crust (plates)
are made up of this light rock.
This occurs when 2 plates collide and the heavier plate sinks beneath the lighter plate. Deep trenches form at this place.
1. When a heavier oceanic plate and a lighter continental plate move toward each other, eventually they collide. When this happens, the heavier plate sinks down into the mantle, where it melts and becomes part of the magma. This is subduction.
oceanic plate + continental plate = subduction
What do you think
will happen when 2
substances of the same
weight come together?
2. When two continental plates collide, they push
against each other and fold and buckle to form
continental plate + continental plate = mountains
The VIBRATING EARTH
FAULT: a crack or a break in the Earth's crust
where 2 plates SLIDE past each other.
THE RING OF FIRE
Pattern of volcanoes and earthquakes seen around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.