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Classicism and The Greco-Roman Tradition 2
Transcript of Classicism and The Greco-Roman Tradition 2
The Greco-Roman Tradition The civilization of ancient Greece or Hellas began about 1000 B.C. The geography of Greece varies greatly from that of Egypt, for Greece has a mountainous interior and a long and rugged coastline with many harbors. Unlike Egypt, Greece was city-states (polis) with autonomous governments.
Furthermore, the ancient Greeks or Hellenes developed an outgoing divided politically into small disposition as seafarers and enjoyed an active commercial and cultural exchange with their neighbors. In spite of its division into numerous city-states, among them Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes, Greece was unified by a common language and literature. HOMER, the blind bard to whom is attributed the Iliad and the Odyssey, and Among its earliest writers
are: The Greeks were also united by a common religion which honored Zeus as the highest of the gods and goddesses who dwelt on the high peaks of Mount Olympus. Then, too, all the Greek city-states participated in common activities, among the most important of which were the Olympic Games, first held in 776 B.C., which have survived as a tradition in international sports. The history of Greek art is divided into three principal periods: GREEK ART Archaic Period (800-600B.C.)
Classical or Hellenic Period (500 B.C.)
Hellenistic Period (400-100B.C) ARCHAIC PERIOD the arts manifested the influence of earlier civilization, such as of those Mesopotamia and Egypt, in their linear, geometric tendency and stylized forms this was seen in pottery with its variety of geometric designs and highly stylized human figures In Sculpture, there were 2 important types Kore (Korai) Kourus (Kouroi) HESIOD, the historian who wrote Works and Days KORE (KORAI) KOURUS (KOUROI) the treatment of musculature of the body and limbs was naive and unsure nude male figure, presumably of an athlete fully clad female figure, the drapery of its robe rendered in regular, vertical folds KOUROS and KORE sometimes held an offering of fruit or an animal to the Gods. CLASSICAL OR HELLENIC PERIOD It is with the Classical period that Greek civilization, particularly Athens, is mainly associated. This period marks the highest point in the remarkable civilization of the ancient Greeks. It is also known as the GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS or the AGE OF PERICLES, after its great statesman. The Classical Period contains the mainsprings of Western cultural tradition in the philosophy that crystallized from the works of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This period was preceded by a brief transitional period in which the arts of the earlier age underwent a process of the maturation until they came into full flowering in the 5th century B.C. THE CLASSICAL IDEALS The term classical in its strict sense refers to the Hellenic Period with its complex of aesthetic and philosophical ideals. With this as a point of reference, the term may then applied to any work of whatever period, and to the particular aspects of any work, which reflect the aesthetic ideals of the Hellenic Period or of Athens in the 5th century B.C. What, then, are these ideals? Emphasis on Form. Classicism emphasizes form, implying a rigorous artistic discipline in conforming to a schema or to certain artistic conventions. In poetry, an example would be the sonnet. Intellectual Order. Concommitant with the importance given to form is the ideal of intellectual order. It is of significance that the Athenians had Athena, the goddess of wisdom, as their city's patroness. Their pilosophical systems flourished out of their love for reason. Harmony. The Athenians also believed in harmony as a basic principle in life as an art. Proportion. Proportion deals with the relationship of the parts to the whole and the whole to the parts. It also implies the application of standards of measurement and norms. Balance. Balance is another important element in a classical work. It is the well-coordinated growth and at the expense of the others. All these qualities of the work of art contribute to the effect of formal elegance, serenity, and restraint that give classical art its distinctive character. artist in various periods, such as in the Renaissance and in 18th century France, have looked back to the Hellenic Age for inspiration and have produced works that embody the classical ideals and spirit. SCULPTURE Sculpture in the Hellenic Period evolved from the frontal and rigid kouroi to truly three-dimensional figures, interesting from every angle. As they became flexible, figures began to create the illusion of transitional movement, as in the shifting of weight from one leg to the other, or in the gradual turning to the side, the body pivoting around its axis. Myron's Discus Thrower Phidias is distinguished primarily for his works in the Parthenon, the famous temple of Athena on the Acropolis sculptor of the Classical Period one of his remarkable works is the frieze extending across the upper section of the outer wall of the cella of the temple ARCHITECTURE The architecture of the period is best typified by the Parthenon, as well as the other buildings on the Acropolis such as the Erechtheum, with its Porch of the Maidens, and the temple of Winged Victory. The Parthenon was designed by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates and ornamented by the sculptor Phidias. Partheon exemplifies the post-and-lintel system of architecture, and it shows the integration of sculpture with classical architecture. Many parts of a classical building are ornamented with low- or high-relief sculpture the pediment, which is the triangular section above the columns; the capitals of the columns the outer frieze on the facade and the inner frieze outside the cella; and the acroteria, the corners of the pediment, on which are figures in the round; Classical Orders The three orders --- DORIC, IONIC and CORINTHIAN --- play a central role in classical architecture. DORIC ORDER with a plain abacus capital, is the shortest and most massive of the three IONIC ORDER taller and more slender CORINTHIAN ORDER tallest and the most slender of the three has capital characterized by pair or spirals or volutes, and a base has capital featuring curling acanthus leaves, and it also has a base The facade of a classical edifice generally consists of a row of columns, called the peristyle, rising above the steps. Upon the columns is the horizontal entablature consisting of the architrave, the sculptured frieze, and the cornice. And set on the three corners of the pediment are sculptured figures called acroteria. Art and science meet in the Parthenon and in the classical temple in general. Here is found the practical application of the ideals of balance and proportion, giving the classical temple the appearance of an exquisite work of art. The columns are fluted with fine grooves to create light-and-dark effects and to emphasize verticality. Furthermore, the distances between the columns are so regulated as to create the most balanced and pleasing effect. HELLENISTIC PERIOD The beginning of the Hellenistic Period was marked by two important historical events: the defeat of Athens by its rival, military Sparta, in 404 B.C. in the disastrous Peloponnesian War, and the subsequent conquest of the Greek city-states by Alexander the Great in 338 B.C. These events put an end to Golden Age of Athens, and thenceforth, the ideals of classicism went into eclipse. The term "hellenistic," then, refers to the period after the 5th century B.C. when Greek culture intermingled with Oriental influences and, togetehr with the political instability of the time, gave rise to a new set of aesthetic ideals. PAINTING Painting in ancient Greece was largely confined to pottery. GREEK POTTERY first in a highly stylized, geometric style, which later developed into expressive, flexible style of the red and white figured vases In the Hellenistic Period that the painters Zeuxis, Parrhasius, and Apollodorus gained legendary renown for their naturalistic paintings. SCULPTURE 2 outstanding sculptors of the period: Lysippos Praxiteles PRAXITELES known best for the beautiful statue of Hermes and the infant Dionysus his statues were taller and more slender, observing the proportion of 8 1/2 heads to the 7 1/2 of Polycleitos, and the slight body twist of earlier classical sculpture developed into a pronounced S-curve he also did several Apollos, such as Apollo with a lizard and Apollo crowning himself with diadem LYSIPPOS his acknowledge masterpiece is the Apoxyomenos The subject is an athlete scraping his body anointed with oil after a game. Like Praxiteles, Lysippos elongated his figures. His work has a kinetic, nervous quality Other important sculptural works of the Hellenistic Period are the Laocoon, the Winged Victory of Samothrace, the Dying Gaul, and the Venus of Milo. For Venus of Milo, although not a work of a heroic age of Phidias, has been described as "one of the most splendid physical ideals of humanity." The spirit of Hellenistic period manifested itself in much later styles, as well as 19th century romanticism with its passion, spontaneity, and intense individualism. ROMAN ART The Hellenistic world was absorbed by Roman expansionism in the first century B.C. when Greece and Asia Minor were added to the Roman Empire. Roman artists concentrated their talents in Portraiture. The portrait filled an important role in Roman society. It is related to ancestor-worship in which the image of the deceased was venerated, for the Romans had a strong sense of family continuity. PAINTINGS Roman artists developed new artistic subjects such as genre, still lifes, and landscapes as well as architectural motifs SCULPTURE ARCHITECTURE The greatest contribution of Romans to Western civilization lay in the field of architecture. Romans adopted some Greek architecture, but these were modified to suit their purposes. The important features of Roman architecture are the rounded arch, the vault, and the dome. Vaulting system is based on the invention of the arch, primarily the rounded arch. The Romans developed the dome and favored the construction of circular edifices. The use of concrete further reinforced the structures. It was especially in community planning that the Romans showed their practical sense. Rome became the converging point for the various peoples of the empire seeking their fortune in the great city. To accommodate the vast, idle crowds demanding bread and circuses, huge public buildings were constructed. Roman architecture was not largely confined to the religious function, but buildings served a variety of purposes. The Romans strove to make conquered territories into the image of Rome by adopting a system of city planning - the grid system of roads crossing each other at right angles with the forum as the focal point and the Arch of Triumph marking the principal thoroughfare. The simplest structure was the Arch of Triumph, such as the Arch of Titus. It was constructed to honor a victorious general returning from a foreign campaign. It was elaborately ornamented with figures in relief celebrating heroic exploits. Thank you very much for listening :> Now, are you ready to take our quiz? If you are ready, please get 1/4 sheet of paper.