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Exercise & Pregnancy
Transcript of Exercise & Pregnancy
Classifying this exercises according to pregnancy trimester
Sensitizing pregnant women on the importance of exercising Objectives Benefits of exercise during pregnancy helps (ACOG, 2002): Reduce excessive weight gain
Reduce varicose veins
Reduce leg cramps
Reduce swelling of hands and feet
Reduce risks of getting preeclampsia
Reduce risk of operative delivery
Reduce mortality rates associated with delivery complications (Downs & Hausenblas, 2007)
Helps improve fitnessImprove circulation
Enhance muscular balanceStrengthen abdominal muscle
Ease postpartum recovery Summary Special Consideration Safety
Warm up & Cool down
Some medical conditions: placenta previa, incompetent cervix, heart diseases, and restrictive lung disease
Never exercised? Avoid starting any physical activity and consult a physician! Warning Signs During Exercise While Pregnant Vaginal Bleeding
Calf or Feet Swelling
Shortness of Breath Pelvic tilt exercise:
- Strengthens a woman’s abdominal and back muscles, thereby decreasing back strain and fatigue
- Significant role in helping women to control their muscles during labor and delivery
- Tone muscles and reduce hemorrhoids and leaking bladders during pregnancyo
- Lying down, or sitting, or standing positions, and then followed by tightening the muscles around the vagina.
- This can be done a hundred times or more in a day
- It is effective in healing the perinea: reducing leaking urine after delivery and strengthening the muscles of the pelvic floor
Swimming: Reduce obesity during pregnancy and plays a big role in toning the body
Avoid Scuba Diving! Avoid supine (on her back) positions exercises
Avoid motionless standing
Aerobics is recommended up until the early stages of 2nd trimester
Kegel exercise no.2o: Muscles are tightened as she counts to six, then slowly relax to a count of four (five minutes, several times a day keeping in mind to breath normally)
According to ACSM (2004), after the fourth month of pregnancy, a woman has to avoid exercises that involve lying flat on her back, this is due to pressure from the heavy uterus on a major blood vessel can diminish blood flow to the heart or to the placenta Avoid aerobics
Other helpful exercises include: Dancing at the gym, stationary cycling, jogging, walking and yoga
Highly advised to stick to exercises that are not strenuous
Pelvic Floor Exercises helps to achieve a strong and elastic pelvic floor
Walking and low-impact aerobics should replace more strenuous exercises (i.e. running and swimming). A pregnant woman can take up a moderate speed walk and in a safe, free-slippery ground to avoid falls
Other forms of cardiovascular exercise are swimming, running, low-impact dancing
Walking remains the safest from of cardiovascular exercise
Should always be supplemented by adequate fluid and nutritional intake
30 minutes, 3-5 times a week Cardiovascular Exercises Strength Training Should incorporate a safe and low weight lifting activity
Should be done while seated, side-lying, and standing, as much as possible
To strengthen the back and the abdominal muscles, a pelvic tilt is recommended, as it is the building block for good posture, which consequently decreases back strain and fatigue. (Skinner, J. 2005)
The amount of weight must be lessened and the count of lifting may be increased
Never hold breath!
30 minutes, twice a week Flexibility Yoga, Pilates and simple stretching exercise
Overstretching the abdominal muscle can cause a tear in a seam that it separates this muscle into two (ACOG, 2002). Intention is to find out the link between exercise and pregnancy
According to Difiore, the background of a study that was conducted in the research is based on the observation of behavioral patterns of pregnant women during labor (2006).
It was found out the women who had an easy time during labor and delivery were linked to a habit of exercising. - The rest of the women had operative delivery;
Also, it was found out that they did not engage in any of the recommended pregnancy exercises.
The results during delivery were remarkable since in the first case, delivery or postpartum difficulties or problems were not experienced while the second case relied so much on delivery aids such as epidurals, episiotomies and stayed for long in labor (Difiore, 2006, p.8).
Although, the relationship between exercise and easy delivery is reputable, the benefits of a safe and healthy physical exercise outweigh the risks for a healthy pregnant woman. Research Another study “A Day-to-Day Guide to a Healthy and Happy Pregnancy”
Shows exercises that are aimed at ensuring that a comparison is placed on the exercise and the number of women who preferred it
Women who were in their first trimester and early second trimester were able to handle more strenuous exercises (i.e. aerobics and yoga).
The later stages of the second trimester and the third trimester required the expectant women to perform less strenuous exercises.
According to Downs and Hausenblas, “women exercising during their third trimester had significantly lower postpartum BMI and significantly heavier and longer babies than women not exercising during their third trimester” (2007) TYPE OF EXERCISE TRIMESTER PERFORMED
Walking 1st 2nd and 3rd
Swimming 1st 2nd and 3rd
Yoga 1st and 2nd
Kegel 1st 2nd and 3rd Pregnant women should start an exercise program as early as possible prior planning to conceive.
According to ACSM (2004), when they begin an exercise program, they need to exercise within the limitations of pregnancy, making sure that they have a correct posture, avoid straining, and not to overexert to the point of fatigue
An advisable start is to exercise for 15-30 minutes, 3 times a day taking a rest in between each session.
Through this research, different types of exercises are found to be suited for pregnant women.
The list and variation of the exercises has increased, giving them a wider variety to classify exercises according to the pregnancy trimesters.
American College Of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2002) gives some specific red flags that a pregnant woman should be aware of while exercising. If she experiences any of the following she must stop and call for help immediately
The level to which exercises can be performed during pregnancy however depends on the trimester a pregnant woman is in; this is important since it can help prevent injury or even miscarriages. References American College Of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ (2002) Revised Guidelines For Exercising While Pregnant from Obstetrics & Gynecology; 99: 171-173.
American College of Sport Medicine (2004) ACSM’S Health-related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
Artal, R. (2010, December 8). Anatomical and physiological changes of pregnancy and exercise. from uptodate: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/anatomical-and-physiological-changes-of-pregnancy-and-exercise.
Artal R, O'Toole M. Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37:6.
Clapp, J. F. (2002). Exercising through your pregnancy. United States: Addicus Books.
Difiore, J. (2006). Pregnancy Exercise. United Kingdom: Carroll & Brown Publishers.
Downs, Danielle S., & Hausenblas, Heather A. (July 2007). Pregnant women’s third trimester exercise behaviors, body mass index, and pregnancy outcomes. Psychology and Health, 22(5), 545-559(15).
Harris, A. C., & Harris, A. C. (2009). A Day-to-Day Guide to a Healthy and Happy Pregnancy. The Pregnancy Journal , 206.
Skinner, J. (2005) Exercise Testing and Exercise Prescription for Special Cases. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
Smith, R., Austin, D. & Kennedy, W., (2001) Inclusive and Special Recreation, Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Spencer, P. (2006). A Week-By-Week Guide to a Happy, Healthy Pregnancy. Pregnancy Journal: , 208. By: Hajir Almoshaikah