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# Science Lessons 7.3 and 7.6: Flow Rate and Viscosity & Controlling Fluid Flow

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## Annemarie C

on 27 March 2014

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#### Transcript of Science Lessons 7.3 and 7.6: Flow Rate and Viscosity & Controlling Fluid Flow

Science Lessons 7.3 & 7.6

7.3 Flow Rate & Viscosity
By: Sarah, Annemarie, and Isabella

7.6: Controlling Fluid Flow
Flow Rate
Viscosity
Cohesion
Surface Tension
We need to study and understand fluids to learn how to control them and how they flow.
The general study of fluids is called :
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Dynamics
Aerodynamics
Studying fluids in motion is called
Study of moving gases:
Study of moving liquids:
Thin fluids flow faster than thick ones
Giving force to a fluid produces a faster flow rate
Liquids move faster in larger openings
Smooth surfaces allow for faster flow
Certain fluids move quicker than others depending on the thickness of the fluid.
Surface tension is the cohesion of particles on a liquid's surface
The force of attraction among the water particles is greater than the force of gravity pulling on something, for example, a water strider.
Two factors that affect viscosity of a fluid are cohesion and adhesion.
Cohesion is how strongly the particles of a fluid attract each other, or stick to themselves.
Fluids that stick to themselves are called viscous.
For example, the particles of the honey have
lots of cohesion, making it viscous. That makes
the honey move slower, and stick to itself, so it
forms a spiral.
Viscous fluids will have a slower flow rate, like dish soap.
If the fluid is less viscous, it has a faster flow rate, like water
For example, molasses flows a lot slower than olive oil.
Viscosity is how easily or fast a fluid can flow
This picture shows the different speeds at which the fluids flow.
Controlling the flow of liquids we eat or drink.
This is a unique way to control the flow of pancake batter by making the opening if the bottle small, to make the batter flow slower.
Controlling the flow of water in rivers and other water systems after a storm.
Controlling the flow of blood in our bodies.
Examples of Hydrodynamics in our lives
HyDrodynamics
Examples of Aerodynamics in our lives
Designers and engineers study aerodynamics to create different designs and features that make things go faster.
Aerodynamic bike helmets were designed for faster airflow over the racer's head, for a faster time in a race.
Flow rate is how quickly fluids move, measured in a volume per unit time. (Like 0.25L/s
Aeronautics is the study of the science behind flight. Research of this topic includes improving aerodynamics to create faster air and space travel.
Some aspects of aeronautics are the designs of parachutes and air balloons and designing wings of airplanes. Aerodynamics need to be included to make these designs efficient.
Fruits such as bananas are often ripened during shipping using ethylene gas. Aerodynamics is used here to control the flow of gas into the ripening room.
Picked and packaged
During shipping they are ripened
At home
At the store
If too much ethylene gas is released
into the chamber at once, the fruit becomes
too ripe and unable to sell. So knowledge of aerodynamics is used to control the flow of the gas.
Trans fat can cause heart disease and cholesterol, so it is important to control the hydrogen gas.
Controlling fluid flow when making
shortening and margarine is important. If
the hydrogen gas used mixes too quickly with the oils used, unhealthy trans fat forms.
In developing areas dams are too expensive, so rivers and lakes often overflow, resulting in floods and damage.
Dams are effective in controlling water flow, especially in times of heavy precipitation. Some dams are also used to create electricity, so they perform two important functions at once.
There are some very negative effects of dams, as listed here, the worst effect being flooding of land. But they do not produce fossil fuels or radioactive waste, like other electricity sources. We can try to reduce negative effects of dams by constructing them more carefully, and considering the location of where we build dams.
Healthy blood flow
Some people's blood clots too easily, causing heart attacks and strokes so they control the flow of their blood by taking blood thinners.
It is the opposite for people with hemophilia. When they are injured, their blood flows out excessively. To control their blood flow, they take medicine that helps the blood clot, and stop flowing as fast.
Adhesion is the attraction between the
particles of one substance
and the particles of an other
substance.
Artifical hearts like this one can be placed inside someone's body whose natural heart was no longer functioning properly. This invention has saved many lives.
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why is it important to control the flow of ethylene gas when ripening fruit? How would this affect the stores that sell the fruit?
Name and describe two examples each of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics in our lives
Adhesion causes gases and liquids to travel faster near the center of pipes and tubes than at the edges.

When water touches the sides of a cup, graduated cylinder, or other container it crates a curved top surface. This curved surface is called a meniscus.
In your own words, define "cohesion" and "surface tension".
a) How does adhesion affect flow rate?
b) Give an example in real life that shows adhesion at work
Surface tension is the strong attraction that forms the surface of a liquid
Cohesion
Surface Tension
Viscosity
a) Stick together
or
b) Are thin and runny
Honey forming a spiral when poured is....
or
The thickness of a fluid is called it's...
Milk sticking to the sides of a glass is...
Viscous fluids:
Aerodynamics
Aeronautics
The study of gases in motion is called...
or
An example of hydrodynamics in our lives is:
Controlling our blood flow
Controlling the flow of ethylene
gas when ripening fruits

Dams often perform two functions. They are:
a) Storing water and cleaning water
or
b) Controlling water flow and producing electricity
Full transcript