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Slavery and the Slave Trade

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Katherine Rutherford

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Slavery and the Slave Trade

Slavery and the Slave Trade

Impact of the Slave Trade On Liverpool
Liverpool played a central role in the transatlantic slave trade with much of the city’s 18th century wealth built on the profits from the transportation of slaves.

Liverpool was late in entering the slave trade but quickly surpassed London and Bristol to become Europe’s number one slave port by the 1740’s.

It’s thought that over 40,000 African slaves were transported by Liverpool vessels. By 1792 Liverpool was firmly established as the leading slave port, with 131 sailings in that year compared with 42 from Bristol and 22 from London.

Impact of the Slave Trade On Race, Relations, Prejudice and Discrimination
The abolition of slavery left Americans with a large population of free citizens of African origin. They were free but very poor. Some efforts were made to return people back to the country of their origin however the efforts were not great enough. This is how we created the African - American population. It is conceivable that the abolition of slavery might have been owed by a determined effort to help former slaves build successful lives and integrate them into society. But this did not happen and whites took measures to exclude african originated people. This is how the apartheid came about which caused even more problems which can still be seen today in some generations. All because of the slave trade.
The Abolition Movement

Sometimes, slaves revolted on the voyage. In Jamaica, runaway slaves, called 'Maroons', formed their own communities. In England, a group of Black Britons called the 'Sons of Africa' started a letter-writing campaign against the slave trade.

The Abolition movement happened in the 1800's to end slavery. The majority of abolitionists activity happened in the United States and Great Britain, but it also happened in other countries as well.

Most of the well known abolitionist leaders came from New England. Some of these being women who played an important role. Some of these men and women are:

James Russell Lowell, John Greenleaf Whittier, Wendell Phillips, Theodore Weld, Arthur and Lewis Tappan, Lucretia Mott, James Forten, Robert Purvis, and others.

Origins of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Beginning in the mid- fifteenth century and lasting over 400 years, the African - American slave trade became the largest forced migration in the history of the world. En-slaved Africans were transported to destinations in North America, South America and the islands of the Caribbean. It began because of demand for produce made in other countries, by the Europeans. Spain was the first European country seriously to explore the Americas this then spread around Europe. Sugar and tobacco and cotton were particularly popular.
Life on The Plantations
I feel that it is difficult to describe just how horrific working on plantations was, and how awful the punishments were. Therefore I have found a video which shows you visually...
The Ships
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly purchased African slaves to the Americas.
The Slave Triangle
The Slave Auctions
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Therefore they need a method for buyin g and selling slaves. The slave auctions came into place. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation.
Impact of the Slave Trade on Britain
The impact of the slave trade on Europe is another area of historical debate.

At the centre of the debate is the economic transformation of Britain. During the eighteenth century, Britain became the first country in the world to “industrialize”, in terms of the fact they made a shift towards manufacturing in mass and using technology. These were also years of large British involvement in the slave trade.

By Katherine Rutherford 9O/9K2
Thank You
William Wilberforce
Granville Sharp
Olaudah Equiano
Diary Extract
This diagram is the slave triangle and it represents the 3 different stages of the transatlantic slavery system:
William Wilberforce was born on 24 August 1759 in Hull, the son of a wealthy
merchant. He studied at Cambridge University where he began a lasting friendship with the future prime minister, William Pitt the Younger. In 1780, Wilberforce became member of parliament for Hull, later representing Yorkshire. His dissolute lifestyle changed completely when he became an evangelical Christian, and in 1790 joined a leading group known as the Clapham Sect. His Christian faith prompted him to become interested in social reform, particularly the improvement of factory conditions in Britain.

Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745 – 31 March 1797), also known as Gustavus Vassa, was an African involved in the British movement for the abolition of the slave trade. He was enslaved as a child, purchased his freedom, and worked as an author, merchant, and explorer in South America, the Caribbean, the Arctic, the American colonies, and the United Kingdom, where he settled by 1792. His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, describes the horrors of slavery and influenced the enactment of the Slave Trade Act of 1807
The abolitionist Thomas Clarkson had an enormous influence on William Wilberforce. He and others were campaigning for an end to the trade in which British ships were carrying black slaves from Africa, in terrible conditions, to the West Indies as goods to be bought and sold. William was persuaded to lobby for the abolition of the slave trade and for 18 years he regularly introduced anti-slavery motions in parliament. The campaign was supported by many members of the Clapham Sector and other abolitionists who raised public awareness of their cause with pamphlets, books and petitions. In 1807, the slave trade was finally abolished, but this did not free those who were already slaves. It was not until 1833 that an act was passed giving freedom to all slaves in the British empire.

The African American Slave Trade by Christina Hatt
The African American Slave Trade by R.G Grant
Liverpool and Slavery by D. Sam
The Trade, the Owner, the Slave by James Walvin
Online (wikipedia.com, bbc.co.uk, livesincrisis.org)

Triangular Trade
The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods.
The slave trade began with Portuguese, and some Spanish, traders taking African slaves to the American colonies they had conquered in the 15th century. British sailors became involved in the trade in the 16th century, and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) gave them the right to sell slaves in the Spanish Empire.

In the 18th century, perhaps 6 million Africans were taken to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them in British ships.

For the British slave traders it was a three-legged journey, called the 'triangular trade':

Taking trade goods, such as guns and brandy, to Africa to exchange for slaves.

Then taking the slaves on the 'Middle Passage' across the Atlantic to sell in the West Indies and North America.

Finally, taking a cargo of rum and sugar back to sell in England.

Slaves had 5ft 6inches in length on the ships, which they would be on for 6 to 12 weeks. The floor was packed with bodies.
In the Auctions surviving slaves were leaned and oil rubbed into their skin to make them look healthy. They were then put on display and once they were bought the were burned with the buyers initials.
Granville Sharp (10 November 1735 – 6 July 1813) was one of the first English campaigners for the abolition of the slave trade He also involved himself in trying to correct other social injustices. He formulated the plan to settle blacks in Sierra Leone, and founded the St. George's Bay Company. His efforts led to both the founding of the Province of Freedom, and later on Freetown, Sierra Leone, and so he is considered to be one of the founding fathers of Sierra Leone.
The men usually worked in the fields such as pickers and planters. most women also worked as field hands or domestic laborers,which is basically keeping house for the master. Although many slaves were good cooks the number of "easier" jobs was few.
The slave trade directly effected the people of Sierra Leone because they were being taken by Americans and Europeans to do the work.After the Slave trade they were also directly effected by the rascism that followed.
The Last Goodbye - Purple Planet
It was crowded, wet, noisy and frightening.
To make it worse any sick people were thrown overboard.
Production was usually of tobacco, cotton and sugar.
So the slave trade affected the British economy in a number of ways. The British cotton mills, which became the symbol of the “Industrial Revolution”, depended on cheap slaved-produced cotton from the New World; cotton would have been more costly to get elsewhere. British consumers also benefited from other cheap and plentiful slaved-produced goods such as sugar. The profits gained from the slave trade gave the British economy an extra source of income. Both the Americas and Africa, whose economies depended on slavery, became useful additional export markets for British manufactures.
Some slaves worked for white families, and husbands and wives and mothers and children could all be sold separately. They were whipped if they didn't do their jobs correctly or obey their master as shown in the video. If they escaped then they would have a more serious punishment like having limbs cut off or being burned.

Average age span of a slave was 26 because after they arrived in the americas they lasted an average time of 7 years.
The voyage from Africa to the Americas was known as the middle passage. Every ship tries to transport as many slaves for as cheaply as possible. The captain would only get paid for the number of slaves that arrived in America. This was 1 in 5.
Thomas Clarkson
Here is an extract from his diary to show what life was like on board a slave ship travelling the middle passage...
''The stench of the hold while we were on the coast was so intolerably loathsome, that it was dangerous to remain there for any length of time, and some of us had been permitted to stay on the deck for the fresh air; but now that the whole ship's cargo were confined together, it became absolutely pestilential. The closeness of the place and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspiration, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness amongst the slaves, of which many died.''
Is the racism that was caused by the slave trade still around today?
Things have improved however because these following successful people are all of African -American Origin...
Unfortunately the answer is yes. A recent example of a racially motivated attack happened in Liverpool
Jay- Z
Nicole Scherzinger
Barack Obama
The reason things like this are connected to the slave trade is because during the time of the slaves black were considered to only be three fifths of a person. Simply meaning they were not whole, and therefore not as important. These attitudes have continued to be the underlying problems. Statistics show this as over double the number of black people are living in poverty compared to the number of white people in poverty. The white race even today still seems to be the more superior.
The Anthony Walker Case

Anthony Walker was a black British student of African descent from Huyton, Merseyside, England, who was murdered with an ice axe by Michael Barton and his cousin Paul Taylor, in an unprovoked racist attack. Wikipedia

Born: February 21, 1987, Huyton
Died: July 30, 2005, Huyton

In the slavery museum in Liverpool there is a Anthony Walker room in memory of him and to remind people of the impact rascism still has on people today.
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