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Final Project Yash Jain Part 2

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Yash Jain

on 29 March 2015

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Transcript of Final Project Yash Jain Part 2

Science Pathway Driving Questions

By. Yash Jain

This mission will expand the scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe which we live in because the data that will be received from monitoring the volcanoes will give us an accurate representation of how the earth changes by itself. In today’s world humans have been affecting numerous characteristics of the environment and causing for the data that is gathered by missions to be slightly modified are varied due to pollution. By monitoring underground ice volcanoes and various types of volcanoes around the world, it will allow us to view how the world is changing over time and be able to predict what the future of the earth’s geography, especially concerning rising sea levels and the amount of fresh water.
How does this mission expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe in which we live?
What are the fundamental science questions being posed that this mission intends to answer?
The fundamental science questions are being posed for this mission are:

1) How is the Earth developing naturally in delicate parts of the world including ice caps and specifically the Arctic?
2) How rapidly can a volcano melt the ice caps and how will this affect the world’s rising ocean levels?
3) What effects are the volcano’s eruptions having on the rest of the globe and can the effects of volcano still be lingering in the environment for years later?

The connection to the SMD consists of using space technologies such as the LiDAR in our research experiment. The LiDAR satellite will be able to observe the life cycle of our volcano. It is important to SMD because one of the purposes of the SMD is to study “How is our planet changing, and what are the consequences for life and human civilization?”. This experiment is directly related to that because we are observing. We are observing how the earth is changing and how volcanoes are causing for acid rain and other harmful pollutants to fall down on the earth. However volcanoes can cause for the ocean levels to rise because of the melting of the arctic ice which is covering that volcano. Our study is observing how these effects are going to affect the rest of the world and this is a direct relationship to the SMD.
What is the connection to the SMD?

This mission is important because it provides us with information about how the world is changing naturally. As of now there is no mission that studies the effect of how the volcanoes are changing the world’s environment while this is one of the most important pieces of nature that can cause some of the most earth changing effects. Without this mission in place valuable research of how the earth is changing will be lost. In today’s world due to humans, pollution, and other factors it is getting harder to observe nature naturally without having to assume that some of the data might be inaccurate. This mission is studying a part of nature in a part of the world which has been touched minimally in comparison to the rest of the world. Studying this mission would be priceless.
Why is this mission important?

There are a few previous missions in which this mission is built upon. The first mission it is built of off is Operation IceBridge. This mission will continue to gather the same data of detailed information about the Arctic region and information about the vegetation and how quickly the ice is melting in the Arctic. Another mission which is related to the IceBridge mission is the LVIS missions. This sensor will provide us with information about the vegetation is that growing around the places which we are monitoring and also provide us with how the land surrounding the volcanoes and the ice is reacting to the emerging volcano. The other mission that will be put into use when created in the next few years will be ICESAT 2. This will give us data in how the polar ice caps in the North and the South Poles which is covering the volcanoes are retreating. FInally the last mission which is going to be in use will be the Global precipitation Measurement Mission. This is a instrument that measure the amount of precipitation that occurs in the world. This is important for our mission because monitoring the precipitation that occurs right after a volcanic eruption is vital since a lot of chemicals are released into the environment when an eruption occurs and can stay in the atmosphere for years later. Organizations like NASA and Space X can assist us in reaching these goals.

What previous research does this mission build upon? What agencies or organizations do we need to collaborate with in order to develop the mission?

The connection to NASA, colleges, and universities along with other international program missions is that they will be able to use the data that our study will provide to use on their missions. Colleges and universities can use this data for experiments and can research this data to draw conclusions on how the earth is changing. They can also further their conclusions by observing how the earth is changing naturally and conclude how humans may be affecting earth’s natural development in other places of the world. This will definitely benefit NASA because as we are combining their missions and using the same technologies we will be able to add to their knowledge and data of and around the world. NASA will be able to take this data and use it to make graphs and visualizations of the globe and how volcanoes can have a drastic effect around the world.

What is the connection to NASA, colleges and universities, and other international program missions?

On my advisory board I would like to have the current mission leaders for the ICESAT2, GPM, and IceBridge. They will assist me in understanding the full capabilities that these machines and missions have. I would also like to have all of the data analysts from these missions to be on my board because these people will have the knowledge of how to accurately comprehend this data and the best places to conduct the data collection so that we can gather the greatest amount of data in the desired locations in a small period of time.
Who will be on your advisory board? Why?

The data that will need to be collected to answer all of the desired questions that have been posed for this mission will need to be in two major forms. The first form will be measuring how much rainfall occurs around the globe and specifically near the volcanic region right after and for years following the eruption. The second form of data that will be necessary will be received will be the data from the ice recession that will taking place. This data will be quantitative so that we can make line graphs from the data. This data will be recorded in miles of ice per year.

What type of data needs to be collected to answer the science questions?

All of the data is relevant, as stated before, because they will be able to tell us the rate at which the ice is melting and this can help us make graphs for the future which will predict when most of the ice caps at the North and South Pole have melted. The data though will also be relevant to hundreds of scientists across the globe because the rate at which the ice melting will not only be recording how quickly the ecosystem for organisms will be melting away but increasing the rising sea levels and this will be a huge danger for the human race because many nations will have their entire countries subdued in water. This data will help us plan for the future. Also the data of the precipitation is relevant because it will provide us with information of how much acid rain is occurring and how much of the rain falls down on to the earth.
How are these data relevant?

The data collected from the LVIS instrument will be monitoring the environment that is surrounding the volcano. We will study this over time by taking a satellite map of the earth and showing different environments through different colors. Over time we can see how the environments will be shrinking and how the water surrounding the poles is increasing. The data from the GPM will be helpful in monitoring through a line graph of how much precipitation occurs directly after and over time after a volcanic eruptions occurs. This data then can be used to show how much of the chemicals from the volcanoes transfers into the rain and falls down to earth damaging crops, environment, and people’s properties. Finally the third way that the data will be collected is true the LiDAR will provide us with data over ice recession and this will be vital to the mission. This data will be measured through miles of ice and will be presented in a line graph to provide us with accurate information regarding the recession of the ice.
Identify and explain the data collected.

The LVIS will continue to monitor surface altitude, and the existence of vegetation near and next to volcanoes and their environments that are surrounding them. However, instead of limiting the LVIS to an Airplane where it will need to be brought to certain altitude to conduct its research we will enhance the power of the LVIS and prepare it for a satellite so that it can be put into an orbit over the desired major volcanoes that exist around the world. The LVIS being placed on a satellite will allow it to also have access to a larger part of the world. The High Capability Radar Sounder (HiCARS)-- this radar will penetrate the ice to give a image of what lies underneath it: bedrock and internal layers of ice. This machine would help us monitor the rate and places at which the volcanoes start to expand to. The HiCARS will provide a timeline of the overall growth of the volcano.

How is the data collected?
All of our instruments put together help us view the never ending life-cycle of the volcano. First the HiCARS will provide scientists with data about the growth of the volcano from when it is still small and emerging. It will monitor that growth until it starts to emerge from the ground. Following that the LVIS will start to monitor the environment and the volcano and observing the effects that it is having on the ecosystem around it. It will also monitor the volcano’s growth after it has emerged from the ground. During all of this time though the LiDAR will be present monitoring the ice recession that occurs around the volcano as it erupts and grows. Finally after the volcano has grown to it’s full extent the GPM will be helpful in monitoring the effects the eruptions have on the environment by monitoring how much rainfall occurs after the eruption. All of that rainfall is most likely to be acid rain. This is how the mission will cover the lifetime of a volcano.

How is the data collected? (cont.)

The scientific data will be collected will be used by researchers, scientists, and numerous universities around the world so they can conduct further research into the data collected and come to deeper conclusions. Also scientists that have been studying volcanoes for years will be able to use this data to understand the life cycle of a volcano to a greater degree and much more accurately. Most importantly this data will help the people themselves. If we can accurately tell them how to filter their water when acid rain comes down they will be able to stay healthy. Also if we can monitor the ice recession and the increasing in ocean levels we can warn people where there might be danger and not safe to live in the next few years.
Who will make use of the scientific data that is collected? (Mission users)

To obtain historical data for this project the all of the previous LVIS, LiDAR, and GPM missions data will be present in the NASA databases and can be accessed with permission and correct authorization from the right people. However unique to over mission will be the study of all of the volcanoes and specifically the one under the Arctic and watching it over a 10 year period developing.
Where may we obtain historical data for this project, if available?

As stated before this data will help the people themselves. If we can accurately tell them how to filter their water when acid rain comes down they will be able to stay healthy. Also if we can monitor the ice recession and the increasing in ocean levels we can warn people where there might be danger and not safe to live in the next few years. Additionally society will benefit by getting more data about how close they should live near volcanoes.

How does society benefit from this mission?

Some of the applications of this mission is that this data could be given to local high school and colleges where students could develop and research this data. They would analyze it so they could also be aware of these issues that occur in our everyday world. This mission would improve the quality of our life by helping our farmers understand when and which concentrations of acid rain are going to fall and how farmers can protect their crops. This is just one way in which monitoring the acid rain that falls after volcanic eruptions can be helpful.
What are the applications of this mission? How does this mission improve the quality of our life?

Erupting volcanoes can also produce lethal and non-lethal gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide. Carbon Dioxide is not a harmful gas because it is already in our air however because it is a gas that is heavier than air in low lying areas this gas during a volcanic eruption can become highly concentrated and if breathed in in high concentration can prove to be fatal to the human body. Sulfuric Dioxide is the chemical that affects the earth’s climate the most. When sulfur dioxide is released into the stratosphere it can change to sulfuric acid aerosols, which are tiny sulfuric acid droplets. These droplets actually travel around the earth for years after the actual explosion takes place. These droplets then start to travel farther out to space but are forced to stay in the earth’s atmosphere when they come in contact with the solar rays. They are forced back into the earth’s atmosphere and stay there for years. They keep on trying to leave but are forced back with the solar rays. This continuous process also though droplets to absorb the heat of the solar rays and cools down the earth. That is the positive factor and then the negative part of sulfuric dioxide comes into play. After a while theses droplets can no longer stay floating in the atmosphere. If this was the case then by now there would be a ring of Sulfuric Dioxide around the earth. Instead what has truly occurred is the Sulfuric Acid has mixed with the rain to create acid rain. The acid rain can cause for environmental damage to occur by destroying ecosystems that can cause for species to die. The other gases are harmful but those were the most effective to the environment in the short run and long run.
Health & Natural Resources

The money for this project, especially because it is over a 10 year period is extremely expensive. With the LVIS, GPM, ICESAT2, LiDAR, and HiCARS on board this mission and all of these instruments cost a lot of money, probably so a couple million dollars every single year for ten years. This price will be a lot for the organization however in the long run the data that will be acquired will be worth the cost.

Taxpayers should spend their money on this mission because the people who benefit the most from this mission are the people themselves. The effects will eventually hit the people themselves and they will realize that if taxpayers are paying for these missions it will be worth it because the food that they eat will not have gotten exposed to so many sulfuric chemicals through acid rain. Also now that people can be more aware of where the ocean might be coming up till as the ocean levels start to rise people can move to safer locations if we can get exact locations to where the water will rise to we can draw borders there and not let people live there for their own safety. We can connect this to a real-world concerns in a weakened economy because even though these missions can be expensive they do allow for countries to save their people’s lives. If people in developing countries drink this acid rain they will become infected with serious diseases and these disease which are transferred through various chemicals can cause for many people to die. This is why all countries around the globe should pay for this mission to take place.

Why should taxpayers spend money on it? How does this connect to real-world concerns in a weakened economy?

All of the stakeholders that are part of this mission would be the NASA scientists and all of the taxpayers that are paying for these missions. Also all of the people that are responsible for being a part of this mission. Most importantly are the people that depend on the data that is the people of the world. This mission is important to them and they need this data throughout their daily lives and this will allow them to survive and live our lives healthier. For this mission the biggest priority is observing the ocean rising levels because as of now all the volcanoes are erupting around the world and we have developed systems which are used to take away the chemicals from the food. The ocean levels though are going to affect the people the soonest and this will greatly affect millions of people around the world. That is what the stakeholders will find the most important aspect of this mission to cover first.
Who are the stakeholders (anyone who affects or is affected by the mission)? What are stakeholders perceived beliefs about this mission and its priority?

Economically some consideration that will be built in is that this is a time oriented project which means that parts of the project will occur at different stages. This means that if the first part of our mission does not work out as planned and the missions are not returning with the data that we want we can easily stop the project and abort saving the millions of dollars. Considerations for the equipment is with NASA itself. All of the instruments that we are using have gone on numerous mission previously and the ICESAT2 is just a development of its original design. This means that in most cases our mission will be successful.
What are considerations built into this mission from the stakeholders?
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