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Gender and Development F17
Transcript of Gender and Development F17
development institutions did not see women as being actively engaged in economic production
when recipients of development aid, it was under the rubric of household welfare
colonial and post-colonial governments and development institutions by passed women in diffusion of new technologies and productive inputs
Dey shows how development interventions increased women's dependency on men in Gambia.
pre-intervention-- production through collective work, but women and men controlled thier own land
Rice irrigation projects (sponsored by Taiwan, Japan and WB) only gave men rights to land
women's labor used, but they had no rights to produce and were paid low wages.
Whitehead- deconstruct concept of household in Northern Ghana
men and women do not pool resources within household
biggest constraint on productivity is mobilising labor, which men are better able to do.
Women in Development
1975-85: UN Decade of the Woman
1975- International Woman's Conference
establishment of services for women to be free to contribute equally to economic production
focused on providing income generation projects outside of domestic realm, skills training
initially, rationale was that doing so would enable women to better provide for the basic needs of their families
Critiques of WID
only provide for women's access to development resources in sex-segregated way
not as equal to men
reproduced ethnocentric assumptions about nature of gender
focused on women, rather than the social, political, and cultural relations she is engaged in.
Paradigm shift from WID to Gender and Development (GAD)
examine the political and social construction of gender
how societies define the roles, expectations, and attributes of a person
how they then interact in relation to one another
Often, still used to refer to 'women'
Both GAD & WID--
presumes that the goal of development interventions should increase women's economic contributions & strive for their equality with men
see 'men' as a homogeneous class that are oppressors, in relation to 'woman' the victim
'Third World' Feminists question these goals:
Are the interests of 'First World' Feminists (Middle-Class) the same as 'Third World' Feminists?
Are women a 'class' of people in their own right?
Is it acceptable to frame development interventions towards women in a way that focuses on their relationship with men, rather than other oppressive forces that may be relevant to society?
Are the goals of men and women always in opposition and mutually exclusive?
"Equality with men, who themselves suffer unemployment, low wages, poor working conditions, and racism within the existing socio-economic structures does not seem an adequate or worthy goal" (Cornwall)
Need to examine gender in relation to conditions of global inequality and distribution of power, privileged, and resources
If a woman prefers interventions that appear to reinforce their subordination, what should practitioners do?
What factors contribute to women's experience f poverty, according to Kabeer, in Bangladesh?
Bias that nuclear families were norm, headed by men
and that households shared mutual interests
Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh
small loans to women who form groups of 10-30; repay over a year with interest rates ranging from 20-30%
What have been some critiques of these types of loans?
Why do women participate, according to Moodie? What is participation doing??
"microcredit and the self-help group form are a part of several cultural possibilities that women draw on in any given moment"
Why was the women's fishing cooperative successful? What was different in this case?