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Modals in AVIATION

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George Roa

on 7 February 2017

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Transcript of Modals in AVIATION

How to use modals in a sentence?
What is modal?
must, may,
could, can
When we talk about ability, we mean two things.

First, we mean general ability. This is something that once you have learned you can do any time you want, like being able to read or swim or speak a language, for example.

The other kind of ability is specific ability. This mean something that you can or can't do in one particular situation. For example, being able to lift something heavy, or find somewhere you are looking for.
can / can't (for both general and specific ability)
I can play the piano.
She can speak English.
He can't drive – he's too tired.
We can't come now.

will / won't be able to (general ability)
At the end of the course, you will be able to make your own website.
He won't be able to speak Japanese in a week! It will take months.
can / can't (specific ability)
I can help you tomorrow
I can't come to the party
Must, Have to, Should, Have got to
Can, Could
before the negative participle in negation (e.g. I
not go)
before the subject in yes-no questions (e.g. Can you go?)
in positive sentences, put the Bare Infinitive verb or verb I after MODALS (e.g. He
go - not He can to go or he can went)
Where to put the MODALS?
(+) Subject + MODALS VERB + Main Verb
(-) Subject + MODALS VERB + not + Main Verb
(?) Yes-No Q : MODALS VERB + Subject + Main Verb
(?) WH Q : WH Word + MODALS VERB + Subject + Main Verb
modal verb
is a type of auxiliary verb that expresses
We use 'can' and 'could' to talk about a skill or ability.

For example:

She can speak six languages.
My grandfather could play golf very well.
I can't drive.


Rules :
Talking about the past :
We use this modal verbs to say how sure we are about something.
Must, Might, May, Could, Can't
You're a zookeeper? That MUST be very interesting
Don’t put it up there. It COULD fall off and hit someone.
We use must when we feel sure that something is true because there’s very strong evidence.
Come inside and get warm – you must be freezing out there.
There is an evidence of
he was freezing.
He must live near here because he comes to work on foot.
We're not sure where he lives. but we're sure that
he lives nearby
NB: 'MUST' if followed by an infinitive
Might, May, Could
We use might, may or could to say that we think something is possible but we’re not sure.
ex :
Did you hear that? I think there MIGHT be a burglar downstairs.
She’s not sure there’s a burglar but she thinks it’s possible.
We’ll try to get there early but we MAY arrive late if there’s a lot of traffic.
They doesn't know if there will be a traffic or not. But they're sure that they will arrive late if there is one
NB : Might, may and could are also followed by an infinitive without ‘to’.
We use can’t when we feel sure something is not true.
ex :
It CAN"T be a burglar. All the doors and windows are locked.
He doesn’t know it’s not a burglar but he feels sure it’s not.
Really? He has to work on Christmas Day? He can’t feel very happy about that.
She doesn't know what he feels, but she feels sure that he's not happy
We can use modal verbs to talk about how sure or unsure we are about something in the past just as we use modals in the present with a slight change in the form.
ex :
He must be really happy about his promotion.
(present deduction)
He must have been very happy when he was told about his promotion.
(past deduction)
Must have + past participle
Might have/may have/could have + past participle
Can’t have + past participle
We use ‘must have + past participle’ when we are quite sure about something.
He must have forgotten his phone at home again. He’s not answering.
We use ‘might have/may have/could have + past participle’ when we are not sure about something but we think it was possible.
I might have been here when I was a child but I can’t really remember.
We use ‘can’t have + past participle’ for things that we are sure did not happen in the past.
She can’t have liked the show. She hates musicals.
Modal verbs to make guess about a present or a future and a past
The modal verbs must, have to and have got to show that something is not optional; it is necessary.
Must is the strongest modal verb of the three and is most common in writing. It is unusual to use must in questions.
Have got to is most common in informal speech. It is not used in questions.
Have to is the most commonly used modal of obligation. It is useful for forming questions and negatives.
most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit.

ex :

a. This must be the right address!

b. Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school.

c. You must take some medicine for that cough.

d. Jenny, you must not play in the street!

obligation springs from circumstances or external rules. Something has to be done, whether the speaker likes it or not.Have to is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.
ex :
a. This answer has to be correct.
b. The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning.
c. They have to leave early.
is used to give advice or recommendation. No obligation here, rather a recommendation from the speaker. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation

ex :
a. When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam.
b. You should focus more on your family and less on work.
c. I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM.
d. By now, they should already be in Dubai.
Have got to
Use have got to to tell when something is necessary for present and future tenses.
ex :
I have got to study tonight.
You have got to wake u early tomorrow
to make guess about the present or the future
Infinitive verb
to make guess about the past
past participle
we use it to express something is certain with highly probable
ex :
Marry keeps crying-she must have a problem
John is holding a medal with a happy face. He must have won the race
we use it to express something is certain not the case or highly improbable.
ex :
It can't be the postman at the door. It's only seven o'clock..
She can't have a 10 year old daughter! She only 24!
May vs Might
we use them when there is a possibiity of happening.
ex :
I may go to Edinburgh tomorrow
(Perharps 50% chance)
Peter might come with me
(Perhaps 30% chance. It is possible but not very likely to happen.
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