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Basic Charge Ideas

Background ideas about materials and charge from other courses and experiences. Units and conceptual tools for thinking about static charge explorations.
by

Bruce Emerson

on 14 January 2011

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Transcript of Basic Charge Ideas

measuring charge
Coulomb = C ~ small lightning bolt
Leyden Jars -- original charge storage!
if 1 C is a lightning bolt than most charged objects must have small amount of charges -- microC and nanoC are typical. As we will see in Coulomb Forces even milliC of charge can produce remarkably large forces.
q = q = +/- 1.6 E-19 C
makes you wonder how a proton which is big carries the same charge as an electron which is small - can you say quarks and leptons?
e
p
normal staticly charged objects have unbalanced charge in the nC to microC range
Atoms and Charge
particles - protons, neutrons, electrons
baryons, mesons, leptons
quarks and other boojums...
materials and charge
conductors
insulators
not conductors
charge can move
charges stationary unless significant external forces
solids
liquids
ions
metals, salt H2O
humans (except skin)
graphite
rubber, wood, plastic, paper, air
semi conductors
best not to worry yet...
..to put it in the outlet or not to put it in the outlet, that is the question....
safe
not safe!
solids
liquids
electrons
larger particles with unbalanced charge - + or -
almost exclusively conduction electrons move but....the postive charge appears to move as "holes"
remember the model of passing oranges down a line of people with one missing?
+ charge is in the nucleus so material would have to move as in the Terminator series:)
....even these fail to keep us safe at some point but that's another discussion later....
Experiments
Structure
nucleus
small and central
heavy
electrons
small and on "outside"
planetary vrs quantum fuzziness
few femtometers
1*E-15 m
an Angstrom
1*E-10 m
factor
1.7*E-27 kg
9.1*E-31 kg
m ~m ~ 2000 x m
m , m >> m
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/tables/funcon.html
protons - neutrons
of 100,000
(1*E5)
explorations with tape
balloon observations
electroscope observations
charging by induction
distinguishing sign of charge
induced polarization
neutralizing charge
humidity
sticks to conductors
sticks to insulators
same reasons?
charging by contact
picking up bits of paper or metal
p
n
e
p
e
n
Full transcript