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Thyroid Gland

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by

Maisha Shahid

on 31 October 2016

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Transcript of Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Gland
By Maisha Shahid
What is the thyroid gland?
It's role is crucial in keeping many elements of the body regulated.

It secretes thyroid hormones which regulates many important bodily functions, such as: metabolism, heart rate, breathing, central & peripheral nervous system, body weight, muscle strength, menstrual cycles, body temperature, cholesterol levels and many others.
Thyroid hormones
Two of the hormones produced by the gland using
iodine
are
Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine,
more commonly known as T3 and T4, which can increase your metabolism.

The normal thyroid gland produces about 80% of T4 and about 20% of T3, however,
T3
possesses about
four times
the hormone
"strength"
as T4.

The
parafollicular cells
of the thyroid gland also
produce the thyrocalcitonin
hormone, this has a role of regulating calcium in the body.


What controls T3 & T4
secretion?
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
The hypothalamus produces thyroid
releasing hormone – TRH.

TRH signals the pituitary to either release more or less thyroid stimulating hormone – TSH.
The release of TSH into the bloodstream makes the thyroid gland release thyroid hormones.

When the pituitary gland detects that thyroid hormone levels are too low, it releases more TSH. If the pituitary gland detects too much thyroid hormone, it releases less TSH.
If the thyroid does not produce enough hormones, it is called hypothyroidism. If the gland produces too many hormones, it is called hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are two major diseases related with the thyroid gland.
HYPOTHROIDISM
HYPERTHROIDISM
SYMPTOMS
• Fatigue
• Weakness
• Weight gain
• Coarse, dry hair
• Dry, rough pale skin
• Hair loss
• Cold intolerance




• Constipation
• Depression
• Irritability
• Memory loss
• Abnormal menstrual cycles
• Muscle cramps

Birth Defects
Goiter
Heart problems
Infertility
Mental Health Issues
Myxedema

COMPLICATIONS
TREATMENT
Levothyroxine
Triiodothyronine treatment

• Appetite change
• Difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
• Fatigue
• Frequent bowel movement
• Heart palpitations
• Heat intolerance
• Increased sweating
• Irritability
• Light menstrual periods
• Mental disturbances



• Muscle weakness
• Nervousness
• Problems with fertility
• Shortness of breath
• Sudden paralysis
• Tremor/shakiness
• Vision changes
• Weight loss/weight gain
• Dizziness
• Thinning of hair

SYMPTOMS
COMPLICATIONS
Arrhythmia (abnormal heart beat, such as atrial fibrillation)
Cardiac dilation (increase in the size of the heart cavities, which actually thins the heart muscle) and congestive heart failure
Sudden cardiac arrest
Hypertension
Osteoporois

TREATMENT
Radioactive iodine
Anti-thyroid medications
Beta blockers
Surgery (thyroidectomy)

THANK YOU!
Full transcript