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matter and energy

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Charlotte Parnell

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of matter and energy

SECTION 1
MATTER & ENERGY
STATES OF MATTER
- SOLIDS-
such as glass, ice, plastic
- LIQUIDS-
such as water, milk, tea, mercury
-GAS-
things such as air, oxygen, helium
-PLASMA-
lightning, solar wind, fire
ALL OF THESE STATES OF MATTER ARE DIFFERENT BASED ON THE CONCEPTS OF THE KINETIC THEORY
1. All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles
CHAPTER 3
2. The tiny particles are ALWAYS in motion. The higher the temperature - the faster the particles can move.
3. At the same temperature, heavier
particles move slower than
lighter particles.
SOLIDS
Have a definite shape and volume
Particles do NOT change position (they are held together but they still vibrate or move)
TWO TYPES OF SOLIDS
crystalline
amorphous
have an orderly arrangement of atoms or molecules
atoms and molecules are in NO organized pattern
examples: rubber, wax, gum
LIQUIDS
have definite volume but change shape
particles can slide past one another to take shape of a container
particles can move more rapidly than a solid and overcome the force of attraction to be held together
keep volume because particles stay in close contact
surface tension - force acting on particles at surface to form spherical drops
GASES
change both their shape and volume
expand to fill available space
particles move rapidly enough to break away and get away from each other
PLASMA
99% of matter in universe is plasma (sun and stars)
no definite shape
particles have broken apart
can conduct electricty
ENERGY'S ROLE IN STATES OF MATTER
energy is the ability to change or move matter (capacity to do work)
all particles move, but move fastest in a gas
particles are always in motion so they have KINETIC ENERGY
Total kinetic energy = Thermal energy (warm) - higher temps, move faster, more KE so more thermal energy
when you measure temperature, you're measuring KE of the particles
ENERGY AND CHANGES OF STATE
change of state is a conversion of something from one form to another
identity doesn't change but energy does
transfer of energy (PE to KE) (heat)
TWO TYPES OF CHANGES
ENDOTHERMIC
change of state that requires energy
MELTING: (solid to liquid) ex: water 0 C, salt 801 C
EVAPORATION: (liquid to gas) ex: boiling pt, sweating
SUBLIMATION: (solid to gas) ex: carbon dioxide
EXOTHERMIC
change of state that releases energy
CONDENSATION: (gas to liquid) water molecules slow down ex: outside of a glass of water
FREEZING: (liquid to solid) particles slow down
CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY
Law of Conservation of Mass - mass cannot be created or destroyed (ice to water to steam, no particles lost)
Law of Conservation of Energy - energy cannot be created or destroyed (it's just converted to a new form; ex: PE to KE to PE to KE

No matter what phase of matter something is in, atoms and molecules are ALWAYS
in constant motion!
The particles will move faster
at higher temperatures.
IRON (Fe)
DIAMONDS
ICE
Full transcript