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The Development of Slavery in America
Transcript of The Development of Slavery in America
of Slavery On the Way to Equality Origin
Treatment by Owners
Way of Life Emancipation Proclamation
Fifteenth Amendment Slave Trade What Actually Happened
The Slave Experience
The End of the Slave Trade Origin Slavery had probably been in existence since before the recording of history.
Many believe that the sale of 20 Africans in 1619 in Jamestown, Virginia marked the beginning of African slavery in what later became the United States. Origin Besides slaves in the Americas, there were also slaves from South African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian societies, and in European countries. Slave Resistance Origin The main reason for the decision of Europeans to enslave Africans was because of racism.
European colonists (in America) would say that Africans were inferior to Europeans, which makes it perfectly fine to enslave them according to their morals. Jobs/Purpose African slaves were used to cultivate crops on plantations, mainly in the South.
In the North, they were also used to work on farms and be household servants. Treatment by Owner Often, slave owners would treat their slaves horribly; whipping them for any wrong thing they did. Jobs/Purpose The reason that plantation owners had slaves was because they used all of their money for their land, livestock, buildings, and machines needed to maintain their land, and therefore could not afford to pay wages to the huge amount of workers needed to harvest and plant the crops unless they wanted to lose profit. This meant that they needed people to do the work, with no pay or legal rights. Restrictions Jobs/Purpose Some domestic jobs that servants did were cleaning, taking care of the master's children, and cooking. Most of this domestic work was done by black slave women. Slaves working on a plantation Jobs/Purpose Slave being sold in Jamestown, VA Origin The slave codes of the South restricted slaves from:
leaving their owner's premises without permission
being out after dark
meeting with other slaves (unless it was at church)
carrying protective weapons (ex: firearms) Restrictions When a white owner punished a slave and killed him during the act, it wasn't considered a crime. On the other hand, if a slave killed or resisted a white person, he/she would be put to death. In other words, a slave was in no way allowed to be physically violent with a white person. Restrictions Other restrictions that slaves had according to the slaves codes were not being able to be taught how to read or write by whites, and not having the right to testify against a white person in court. Also, the laws didn't allow the legalization of slave marriages. Way of Life African Americans learned to speak English and also kept some elements of African language, creating a new dialect to be spoken among themselves. This language was known as "pidgin" to linguists. They also created their own music incorporating their African heritage. Way of Life Most of the time, slaves received enough necessities to live and work. The owners usually supplied them with adequate meals that included salt pork, cornmeal, and molasses. Normally, they wore cheap shoes and clothing. Way of Life Slaves would live in "slave quarters" that were usually put close together, near the master's home. Way of Life Although the slaves knew that there was a risk of being separated because of the constant buying and selling of slaves, they still formed families. The masters usually approved of the slaves making their own families because it meant that there was less of a risk that a slave would run away. What Actually Happened The Slave Trade began in the mid-15th century. It lasted more than 400 years. In the history of the world, the African-American slave trade became the biggest forced migration. Some experts estimated that about 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas by Europeans. What Actually Happened Captured Africans were taken to destinations in North and South America, and the islands of the Caribbean. What Actually Happened Africans were kidnapped from their communities and families and put into ships to be taken to the Americas. More than a million of these Africans died while still in the ships. Those who survived were sold into slavery. What Actually Happened The slave trade's most busiest decade was in the 1780s. During this decade, around 80,000 Africans were taken from Africa each year. This peak in the slave trade did not go unnoticed. Many white Christians started forming abolitionist groups because they believed that slavery was an "offense against God". The Slave Experience Africans were regularly brought onto slave ships in leg irons and handcuffs. Then the white people would separate the women and men. They were then placed below deck in very small spaces that barely allowed them to stand up. The Slave Experience Slaves packed below the ship's deck The Slave Experience The Africans on the ship were fed once or twice a day. The only reason the slave traders would fed them is because they knew that a healthy slave would bring them a lot of money. However, some would refuse to eat because they were angry about becoming a slave. The Slave Experience When the slaves arrived to their destination, they were sold or given to people who had previously purchased them. The slaves for sale had to be physically examined by potential masters. The slaves who were not bought were sold on land at auctions. The Slave Experience Slaves being sold at auction The End of the Slave Trade In 1807, the United States Congress voted to ban the slave trade, as did the British parliament. In 1808, the ban became effective and started being enforced. The End of the Slave Trade The new law would fine people twenty thousand dollars, and also the loss of the slave ship, to anyone who provided slaves to a slaver (a person who deals slaves). A fine was also given to anyone who transported and/or sold slaves. Along with the fine, there was the possibility of a sentence of 5-10 years in prison. The End of the Slave Trade The United States government passed a new law in 1818, which gave informers money if they told the government about slavers being involved in illegal activities. In 1819, Congress passed another law in which ships would be sent to Africa and to the American coast to stop American slave traders, but it wasn't enforced. The End of the Slave Trade In 1820, a new law made slave trading an act that can be punishable by death. No slave trader would be prosecuted under this law for more than forty years. The End of the Slave Trade After the American Revolution, many Americans began to believe that slavery should not exist. The Anti-Slavery actions of Americans, and the laws passed by the government slowly but surely ended the slave trade to the United States. Most Famous Revolts
Most Famous Fugitives
The Underground Railroad
Capturing Runaways Most Famous Revolts In 1800, Gabriel Prosser got together 1,000 slaves that wanted to rebel outside of Richmond, VA. During the process, 2 Africans had given away the plot. The Virginia militia stopped the uprising before it could happen. Prosser and 35 of the rebellious slaves were executed. Most Famous Revolts In 1822, a former slave from Charleston by the name of Denmark Vesey gathered his followers (around 9,000 people) together to prepare for a rebellion. The plot was leaked out and stopped before it could take place. Most Famous Revolts In 1832, Nat Turner (a slave preacher) led a group of African-Americans armed with guns and axes from house to house in Southampton County, VA. They murdered around sixty white men, children, and women. Before they could kill anymore, they were overpowered by state and federal troops. After, more than a hundred African-Americans were executed. This was the only successful rebellion in the 19th century in the South. Most Famous Revolts Nat Turner and a few of his supporters Most Famous Fugitives Ellen Craft was a light-skinned African American woman, and her husband William Craft was dark-skinned. They were slaves in Georgia. On December of 1848, they ran away from their masters and escaped to the North. Ellen dressed up as a white man, pretending to be ill, while her husband acted like her slave. They sailed to North Carolina and went to Baltimore and Philadelphia by train. In Philadelphia, the met up with Underground Railroad workers, went to Boston, and then finally reached Canada. Most Famous Fugitives Ellen and William Craft Most Famous Fugitives In 1848, Henry Brown sealed himself inside a wooden box, keeping some biscuits and water with him. He used a gimlet (a small tool) to drill holes in the box for air. One of his friends sent the box, by train, from Richmond, VA, to Philadelphia. After his escape, he was best known as Henry "Box" Brown. Most Famous Fugitives Henry "Box" Brown arriving at Philadelphia Most Famous Fugitives In 1838, Frederick Douglass disguised himself as a sailor and boarded a train to Philadelphia. His trip was successful because he borrowed legal papers from a free black sailor. From Philadelphia he went to New York where he would eventually buy his freedom. The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network where slaves would be assisted when they escaped. It was important because it helped runaway slaves reach the North (free states). The runaways were normally taken to Northern states that boarded the South, like Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was mostly a "secret system". It was made up of individual people who were against slavery and wanted to do something to help slaves that were escaping. The Underground Railroad is not actually a railroad, or underground. It is not known how it got its name. The Underground Railroad The words used to describe the works of the Underground Railroad were very similar to the ones used on an actual railroad. On an actual railroad, stations/depots are regular stops along the routes, conductors assist passengers along the way, and agents sell train tickets and help passengers at stations/depots. On the Underground Railroad stations/depots were safe houses where runaways hid, conductors were volunteers that traveled along the routes helping slaves escape, and agents offered their homes as Railroad stations. The Underground Railroad When a slave decided to escape they would follow the North Star, and it would lead them to freedom. Capturing Runaways Slave catchers hunted after runaway slaves for a fee each mile they traveled and day they worked. If they captured the slaves, they would take them back to the South, where they were harshly punished, and sometimes even killed for their actions. The most common tool for capturing an escaped slave was with public advertisement. Capturing Runaways An advertisement to capture an escaped slave The Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist and the most famous female conductor of the Underground Railroad. In just ten years, she helped around 200 slaves gain their freedom. Emancipation Proclamation On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. It declared that slaves in the areas of the Confederacy (except the ones under Union control) were free forever. Emancipation Proclamation The effect of the Emancipation Proclamation was limited for a certain time period because it only applied to the Confederate states. Nevertheless, it was extremely important because it clarified that the Civil War was being fought to preserve the Union, and abolish slavery. Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation Thirteenth Amendment In December of 1865, Congress finally approved and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, along with the necessary states. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in all of the United States. Thirteenth Amendment Legalized slavery finally ended in the United States, after more than two centuries. With the abolition of slavery, all African-Americans were now free. Thirteenth Amendment The Thirteenth Amendment stated the following:
"Neither slavery or involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime whereof the party has been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States, or in any place subject to their jurisdiction." Emancipation Proclamation Without Abraham Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, the advancement of abolishing slavery would have probably been very difficult, if not impossible. Thirteenth Amendment After the Thirteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution, former fugitive slaves like Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass wanted equal rights for all African-Americans. With slaves now being officially free, most of them went in search for their families. They could also attend school and have the medical attention they never had. Fourteenth Amendment The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in 1868. It made all black males full citizens of the United States. This Amendment was part of Congress' Radical Reconstruction plan. Fourteenth Amendment It became very important to the Constitution because it gave the first constitutional definition of what an American citizen was. There couldn't be any other requirements in being an American citizen. Fourteenth Amendment The Confederate states had to accept the Amendment in order to be re-admitted into the Union. Also, it denied the Confederacy to hold a state or federal office unless two-thirds of Congress voted for them. Fifteenth Amendment The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870. It prohibited the state and the federal government to deny the suffrage to any citizen of the U.S. because of race or color. In other words, it gave male blacks the right to vote. Fifteenth Amendment Many border states, and northern states, didn't want to approve the Amendment. The Amendment had little success for many years. Also, it didn't mention women, which was a disappointment to feminists that worked hard to get recognized. Fifteenth Amendment Ironically, the Amendment was adopted with the support of the southern states. The southern states had to ratify the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments in order to be readmitted into the Union. These Amendments marked a great change for former slaves in America. Bibliography Worth, Richard. The Slave Trade in America: Cruel Commerce. Berkeley
Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2004. Print.
DeFord, Deborah H. Life under Slavery. New York: Chelsea House
Publishers, 2006. Print.
Burgan, Michael. The Underground Railroad. New York: Chelsea House
Publishers, 2006. Print.
Hatt, Christine. The African-American Slave Trade. 2nd ed. North Mankato:
Smart Apple Media, 2004. Print.
Landau, Elaine. Fleeing to Freedom on the Underground Railroad: The
Courageous Slaves, Agents, and Conductors. Minneapolis: Twenty-
First Century Books, 2006. Print.
Brinkley, Alan. "The Civil War." American History: A Survey. 10th ed.
United States of America: 1999.