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Copy of Text Structure

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Malin Borg

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Text Structure

What is a Text Structure? Text Structures Definition: The organizational pattern an author uses to structure the ideas in a text

A "structure" is a building or frame work
Builders can use different kinds of structures to build different things
A skyscraper, for example, is a different kind of structure from a house
Text Structure refers to how a piece of text is built
Writers use different structures to build their ideas
Each text structure communicates ideas in a different way Types of Text Structures Chronological
& Sequential Order Compare & Contrast Cause & Effect Problem & Solution Chronological & Sequential Order PURPOSE: Authors use chronological and sequential order to explain how things happen in order

Similar: Both are used to present information in a specific order.
Different:
Chronological refers to time and date
Think timeline


Sequential Order refers to a step by step process
ex: a recipe Step 1: Choose your sauce Step 2: Choose your meat & vegetables Step 3: Cook until hot and serve Compare and Contrast
Clue Words: first, second, always, then, next, later, soon, before, finally, earlier, afterwards, meanwhile, eventually, next week, tomorrow, after, during, immediately, preceding, third, initially, not long after, now, today, as soon as, before, until, following, on (date), then, when PURPOSE: Explain how two things are similar and different

Compare – shows similarities
"Tigers and lions are the both the top predator in their habitat."

Contrast – shows differences
"Tigers are solitary animals. That means they spend most of their time alone. Lions on the other hand live in big groups called prides." similar both in common as well although yet however instead unlike even though on the other hand Cause and Effect Purpose: To show the cause or causes of an outcome OR to show the effect(s) of an event.

Explain how one event leads to another
Cause is a reason why something happens
Effect is what happens as a result. Problem and Solution Purpose: to explain a problem, and then show one or more solutions

PROBLEM SOLUTION SOLUTION Step 3: Cook until hot and serve In the summer of 1963, the farmers on Iceland smelled rotten eggs. Later that year, a fisherman saw a pillar of black smoke coming from the ocean. In April, 1964 the volcano erupted with such force that the ash and smoke cloud reached a height of 2 miles.

What order is this? How do you know?


Eating cereal is easy. First, get out your materials. Next, pour your cereal in the bowl, add milk, and enjoy.

What order is this? How do you know? Text Samples A - Sequential order is.....
B - I heard you say that sequential order is..... I agree/disagree because...

B - Chronological order is.....
A - I heard you say that chronological order is...I agree/disagree because...

Discuss with your partner and be ready to share:
What is the difference between chronological order and sequential order?
"The difference between chronological and sequential order is..."

How are they alike?
"They are alike because..." Partner Recap When I got home from school after a long boring day, I took out the peanut butter, jelly, and bread. After taking the lid off of the jars, I spread the peanut butter on one side of the bread and the jelly on the other, and then I put the two pieces of bread together. After that, I enjoyed it while watching “Cops” on the TV. I swear, that was the best peanut butter and jelly sandwich I ever ate.

Think: What is it? How do I know? Key terms?

A - The text structure is... I know this because....
B - I agree/disagree because...

Be ready to share: What is it? How do you know? Key terms? What kind of text structure is this? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.


Think: What is it? How do I know? Key terms?

B - The text structure is... I know this because....
A - I agree/disagree because...

Be ready to share: What is it? How do you know? Key terms? What kind of text structure is this? Sequential & Chronological But what if an author doesn’t want to show how something happened in sequence? And they do

The author would need to use another text structure! Suppose an author wanted to explain how these two birds are similar and different

Chronological or Sequential order wouldn’t work---there is no order of events

Concept or Definition wouldn't work, because he is not trying to explain what a bird is.

The author would need to use Compare and Contrast The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two birds with many things in common. Both have crests on their heads. Both are often seen at bird feeders. But there are some differences. Unlike the male cardinal, who is bright red, the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. The cardinal, on the other hand, stays in one place year after year. Compare & Contrast Key Words Text Sample All matter, all things can be changed in two ways: chemically and physically. Both chemical and physical changes affect the state of matter. Physical changes are those that do not change the make-up or identity of the matter. For example, clay will bend or flatten if squeezed, but it will still be clay. Changing the shape of clay is a physical change, and does not change the matter’s identify.

Chemical changes, on the other hand, turn the matter into a new kind of matter with different properties. For example, when paper is burnt, it becomes ash and will never be paper again. The difference between them is that physical changes only last for a little while, but chemical changes last forever.

Think: What text structure is it? How do I know? Key terms?

Partner A - The text structure is... I know this because....

Partner B - I agree/disagree because.... I would like to add...

Be ready to share: What is it? How do you know? Key terms? Text Sample Lightening and thunder are related events yet there are some differences. Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity that occurs between a cloud and the ground. A lightning bolt is very hot, with an average temperature of 34,000 degrees Celsius. This causes the air around the electric bolt to expand, producing lots of sound energy. It is this sound energy that we hear as thunder. So, lightning and thunder are both great sources of energy. However, while lightning is light energy, thunder is sound energy. That is why we see lightning and hear thunder.


Think: What is it? How do I know? Key terms?

B - The text structure is... I know this because....

A - I agree/disagree because... I would also like to add...

Be ready to share: What is it? How do you know? Key terms? Review what we have learned so far with your partner and be ready to share:

Partner A - The purpose for a compare & contrast structure is.....
Partner B - I heard you say that the purpose is..... I agree/disagree because...


Partner B - Comparing means..... Contrasting means....
Partner A - I heard you say that comparing means... and contrasting means...I agree/disagree because...


Partners: Name at least 5 key words to recognize this structure and be ready to share. Partner Recap Concept or Definition Concept or Definition Purpose: Define an idea using supporting details


Definition: The organizational pattern an author uses to structure the ideas in a text

A "structure" is a building or frame work
Builders can use different kinds of structures to build different things
A skyscraper, for example, is a different kind of structure from a dog house

Text Structure refers to how a piece of text is built
Writers use different structures to build their ideas
Each text structure communicates ideas in a different way Key Words such as
for example
that is
an example
an illustration
characteristics Sample Text Global warming is a looming threat to the world. Just what is it? Scientists agree that global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. Partner Recap Partner A - The purpose for Concept or Definition is.....

Partner B - I heard you say that ..... I would like to add... But what if the author doesn't want to explain or define.

Or the author has already explained the concept or presented a definition? Text Structures Write a description and the purpose in your foldable study guide. Student Recap We have talked about the following text structures so far:

Concept or Definition
Chronological and Sequential
Compare and Contrast

Can you state the purpose for each?
Can you recognize key words for each?
Can you identify the structure of a given text? Be ready to share.

Travis - "Today I learned..."

Stormy - "The most useful thing I learned is..."

Michaiah - "One thing I'm not sure about is..."

Rodney - "Next time, I need you to explain.... again." Closure - Exit Ticket Review Text Structure refers to how a piece of text is built

Writers use different structures to build their ideas

Each text structure communicates ideas in a different way Concept or Definition
Purpose: Define an idea using supporting details

Chronological and Sequential
Purpose: Explain how things happen in order

Similar: Both are used to present information in a specific order.

Different: Chronological order refers to time and date
Sequential order refers to a step-by-step process PURPOSE OBJECTIVE SW be able to evaluate a given text and determine the text structure used. SUB OBJECTIVES
SW be able to use foldable study guide as a tool in their learning.

SW be able to state the purpose for each presented text structure

SW be able to recognize key words or clues for each presented text structure OBJECTIVE SW be able to evaluate a given text and determine the text structure used.

SUB OBJECTIVES
SW be able to state the purpose for each presented text structure

SW be able to recognize key words or clues for each presented text structure Being able to recognize the text structures used will help you understand the author's purpose and identify what is important in a reading passage. Concept or Definition
Key Words:

Chronological
Key Words:

Sequential
Key Words: KEY WORDS/CLUES Think: What text structure is it?
How do I know? Key terms?

Ms. Borg - The text structure is... I know this because....

Students - I agree/disagree because.... I would like to add... Key Words because
since
due to
therefore
so
as a result
consequently The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled! Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.
Key Words Keywords for problem include:

difficulty, struggle, uncertainty, worry, threat, and trouble

Keywords for solution include:
possibility, hope, resolution, stop, answer, and future Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain future. Issues such as pesticides, too many nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the Bay’s water quality and animal life. However, scientists are hopeful that the future may be brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay watershed works together, solutions may be found.
Main Idea Most paragraphs that we write in school can be called main idea, description, or statement and support paragraphs.

Similar to the Concept and Definition

Purpose: Explain a main idea using supporting details In this kind of paragraph, the author offers a main idea statement, and then supports that statement with several details
The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance.
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