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# Science and Materials Construction Materials

Higher Apprenticeship Construction Operations Management
by

## David Walker

on 7 February 2017

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#### Transcript of Science and Materials Construction Materials

Compression is when an object gets squashed or compacted by another force acting upon it. The volume of the object being compressed decreases but the particle density increases.
Examples of compression
Watch this YouTube clip to find out more! B-)
Forces
Compression
Compressing gas
Motion
What is compression?
Suspension bridges use both compression and tension to keep it upright and stable. However, compression is only being applied on the support beam whereas tension is being applied on the strong wires attached to the platform. Compression can also be shown by simply squishing a sponge together.
What is Oscillating motion?
Structures
How does compression work?
Compression works by a another force squishing and compacting the object, this makes it smaller but more dense. you can also compress gases. compressing gases squeezes the particles close together so that you can fit more in!
Oscillating motion
Oscillation is the repetitive swinging motion, typically in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states,
Where is oscillating motion used in everyday life?
Oscillating motion is used in grandfather clocks, when the pendulum swings from side to side, making the clock tick and run smoothly. Another example of oscillating motion is a lawn prickler
How does oscillating motion work?
In a grandfather clock there is a large weight at the end of a long pole. this is swung and the weight on the end of the pole is sufficient to keep the pendulum swinging, thanks to oscillating motion.
Next week: Structures
Check out this cool video using oscillating motion!
Structures are a group of elements somehow united to support a load with stability and strength. All structures must be capable of withstanding the loads and forces of which they are designed. They have a definite size and shape, which serve a definite purpose or function.
When we compress gases, what we are basically doing is compacting the gas molecules together into an enclosed area so that we can fit more in a smaller space. An example of this is oxygen tanks used when scuba diving.
What are structures?
Different types of structures
Mass structures rely on their own weight to keep them stable and enforce them. Examples are -
There are two main different classes of structures -
manufactured
and
natural
.
Natural
structures are formed naturally but may have been influenced by humans or other animals.
Manufactured
structures are man-made and have been built skillfully with some kind of intention.
Manufactured
Natural
There are no specific categories for natural structures but they are all around us. They are naturally formed but may have been influenced or altered by animals or natural forces. some examples are:
Many of natures structures have been copied and adapted by humans. Here are the main types of manufactured structures:

Frame structures supported mainly by a skeleton made of wood, steel or reinforced concrete. Examples are -
Shell structures keep their shape and support loads, even without a frame, or solid mass material inside. Examples are -
Mass structures
a river damn
a brick wall
a sand castle
Frame structures
a crane
the Eiffel Tower
electricity pylons
Shell structures
a car
igloos
fizzy drink cans
mountains
skeletons
volcanoes
Oscillating motion can be used to loose fat!!
It may sound strange but some machines e.g PowerPlate vibrate using oscillating motion which tones peoples stomach muscles and helps them loose fat.
Motion is the way things move. They move by something causing it to move out of its original position. There are 4 different types of motion: ROTARY, OSCILLATING, RECIPROCATING and LINEAR.

We are going to look at...
The Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower is a 10,000 tonne building mainly made out of puddled iron beams, an iron specialized in buildings. It has 3 levels, a total of 1,710 steps and has been made out of 18,038 iron beams. The building is so big that each time it has been painted (6 times so far) it requires 50 tonnes of paint!
General facts:
The Eiffel Tower is a building (at 320 metres tall) designed by Gustave Eiffel that uses beams and supports to keep it upright and stable, therefore it is a frame structure.
Gravity is pulling the pendulum back down to earth
Oscillating motion is pushing the pendulum back up
This is repeated many times until momentum is lost
Like this...
The Construction
Work on the foundations began on January 26, 1887 and took five months, with the workers using only spades. The deepest foundations lay just 15 meters underground. The feet of the tower were set in each of these foundation ditches
Building the first floor required special machinery to support the beams at an angle.
The second floor was assembled by cranes, all the parts had been assembled in a workshop.
From the second to third floor the carpenters worked wonders and there was not one accident!
On the day the Eiffel Tower was finished, Gustave himself climbed the 1710 steps to the top and planted the French flag there.
The End !
Newtons Law