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Trixi Bonquin

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of Nicotine

NICOTINE 1. Description of the drug, including its make up Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (''Solanaceae'') which constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of dry weight of tobacco, with biosynthesis taking place in the roots, and accumulating in the leaves. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical with particular specificity to insects. 2. Classification of the drug 3. Slang terms or street names for the drug 4. Ways to ingest the drug Nicotine is named after the tobacco plant ''Nicotianatabacum'' which in turn is named after Jean Nicot de Villemain, French ambassador in Portugal, who sent tobacco and seeds from Brazil to Paris in 1560 and promoted their medicinal use.
Nicotine was first isolated from the tobacco plant in 1828. Its chemical empirical formula was described by Melsens in 1843, its structure was discovered by Garry Pinner in 1893, and it was first synthesized by A. Pictet and Crepieux in 1904.
Nicotine is a hygroscopic. Nicotine forms salts with acids that are usually solid and water soluble. The chemical formula for nicotine is C10H14N2, with a molecular mass of 162.2.and looks like this: There are three elements that comprise nicotine.

In organic and bioorganic molecules, meaning molecules that are important to or have an effect upon living organisms, carbon is a key element. This is because carbon forms the "backbone" or "skeleton" of all organic molecules. Nitrogen
While all the elements that make up nicotine are important to its physiological activity, nitrogen is perhaps the most essential with regard to nicotine's effect upon the brain. Molecules must have certain shapes and contain certain elements to bind to receptors in the brain and induce psychological responses

The third and most prevalent element in nicotine is hydrogen. The nicotine molecule consists of 10 carbon atoms and only two nitrogen atoms, but 14 hydrogen atoms. While hydrogen atoms form the bulk of the elemental composition of nicotine by quantity, however, they account for only a small portion of its mass--less than 9 percent of the mass of nicotine is made up of hydrogen, according to the "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics." *cigarettes,
*cigars, and
*pipes, or through
*smokeless tobacco. Ways to ingest the Nicotine is by smoking shredded tobacco in: Smokeless tobacco comes in two major forms: Snuff Chewing tobacco 5. Similar drugs with the same effects nicotine produces significant behavioral sensitization similar to amphetamine nicotine indirectly causes a release of dopamine in the brain regions similar to cocaine and heroin opiate and nicotine have similar effect on brain's reward system 7. Effects a. Psychological effects to the brain Nicotine is the harmful, addictive substance found in all tobacco products. When you smoke a cigarette, chew tobacco, or otherwise ingest nicotine, the effects are immediate: •Nicotine travels through the body in the bloodstream and heads straight for the brain, arriving in 7 to 15 seconds. •In the brain, nicotine boosts the “reward center,” releasing chemicals that cause a pleasant, happy feeling. •Adrenaline is then released, increasing heart rate and blood pressure, and making breathing rapid and shallow. As nicotine use continues, these effects can damage your heart, arteries, and lungs, increasing the risk for heart attack, stroke, and chronic lung disease. b. Psychological effects on the rest of the body Whether nicotine comes from smoke, chew, or use of newer e-cigarettes or dissolvable tobacco, nicotine affects each user in the same ways. Let’s break down the body and see how nicotine impacts individual parts: •Brain: Nicotine disrupts normal neurotransmitter activity, causing chemical changes and addiction. Other neurological symptoms caused by nicotine include light-headedness, sleep disturbance, dizziness, and tremors.

•Heart and Arteries: Nicotine increases heart rate and raises blood pressure when it stimulates the release of adrenaline. Short term, this means your body is less efficient when you exercise. It has to work harder getting the blood and oxygen to cells that need it, preventing the body from reaching its maximum potential. Long term, the stress on the heart and arteries can lead to increased risk of heart attack and can even lead to a stroke and/or aneurysm. •Eyes: Nicotine reduces the ability to see at night by stopping the production of pigments in the eyes specially designed for low-light vision. Adrenaline released by nicotine reduces peripheral vision, and in the end, nicotine accelerates the degeneration of the eyes.

•Metabolism: Nicotine increases calories burned but decreases endurance by wasting energy in the effort. So, while nicotine users may have the energy to sprint down the block, they won't have the maximum lung or heart capacity to get their best score on a PT running test or maybe even to finish the all-night trek with their unit. •Reproductive System: Nicotine prohibits proper blood circulation and is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction (impotence) for men under 40. Nicotine also increases the risk of infertility and miscarriage. And if babies exposed to nicotine in utero do make it to birth, they tend to have low birth rates, be born prematurely, and have increased risk for lung problems.

•Bones: When used over time, nicotine alters cellular structures and has been found to increase risk for fractures while contributing long-term to the development of weakened bones (osteoporosis). Smokers are at an additional risk because nicotine is present in their lungs. Nicotine causes rapid and shallow respiration, leading to quicker fatigue during exercise or combat. Over time, nicotine permanently damages the cells in the lungs by changing their structure. This leads to increased risk for lung disease, lung cancer, emphysema, pneumonia, and bronchitis! C. Duration of effects (both short and long term) Nicotine is an active chemical substance present in tobacco that contributes to the negative reputation of tobacco. This chemical, when abused (through smoking or chewing) has harmful effects on the human body and it is also found to be as addictive as illegal drugs. The below are a few harmful and addictive effects of nicotine on humans, later followed by long and short-term effects. Harmful effects:
Tobacco harms every organ of the body. It affects lungs, heart, kidneys, digestive system, liver, eyes and many other vital organs in the body. Further, people who smoke tobacco get their sense of smell and taste weakened.
Also 'passive smoking' or 'secondhand smoking' harms non-smokers. The tobacco smoke contains harmful chemicals. When inhaled by non-smokers in the smoker's proximity, it causes coughing, phlegm and decline in the functionality of the lungs. Studies show that it can cause heart diseases even among non-smokers who are subjected to secondhand smoking. Addictive effects:
Nicotine is absorbed into the body when an individual smokes or chews tobacco. Nicotine causes elevation of mood. This is the principal reason for nicotine causing addiction. The nicotine absorbed by a smoker reaches the brain via blood. This leads to numerous chemical reactions in the brain and causes feeling of high. It lasts for a short span. Once the nicotine level declines, there is no longer the high-feeling. To have a similar feeling again, the smoker has to smoke again, thus it causes addiction. Short-term effects of tobacco:
In the short-term, nicotine is found to cause high blood pressure, increased pulse rate and cough. The abuse of nicotine also has immediate effects on oral cavity which causes bad breath and staining of teeth. In severe cases, it may also lead to oral cancer. •Bad breath: Smoking tobacco or chewing tobacco causes severe bad breath in the individual. Bad breath is because the nicotine, tar and other chemicals in tobacco get deposited in your oral cavity. The chemicals in tobacco drastically reduce the formation of saliva in your mouth, causing dry mouth, thus leading to the growth of odor causing bacteria.
•Stained teeth: When you smoke or chew tobacco, the chemicals like tar, nicotine and others burn and undergo chemical reaction producing sticky substances. When you take the smoke in by inhaling, the sticky substances in the smoke get deposited on your teeth and thus cause stains.
•Increased heart rate and blood pressure: Nicotine causes increased heart rate and blood pressure. This is because nicotine reduces oxygen supply to the heart and thus makes it less functional. Further, it makes blood vessels narrow because of the formation of blood clots. It thus, causes increased workload on the heart; hence, there is increased heart rate. All these factors cause increased blood pressure. •Smoker's cough: Coughing is a protective physiological mechanism in order to remove irritants from the body, especially from the respiratory tract. Smoking damages cilia, the protective structure in the respiratory tract. When Cilia becomes defunct, harmful particles like dust, the chemicals from tobacco, etc. are deposited in the respiratory tract. Over a period of time, the body removes the accumulation of these foreign substances by coughing. Thus, the smoker suffers from heavy cough. Long-term effects of nicotine include addiction, increased risk of heart diseases, and decline in insulin levels, cancer and premature aging. Long-term effects of nicotine are very harmful and may also lead to fatalities in many cases.
Addiction and dependence: As the effect of nicotine on the body is temporary, to enhance the feeling the smoker gets addicted and dependent on the drug in the long-term. Further, the body develops tolerance to the chemical, and thus needs increased amount subsequently and thus perpetuates the intake causing addiction and dependence in the long-term. Increased risk of heart diseases: There is increased risk of heart diseases in the long-term due to nicotine addiction. Nicotine causes narrowing down of the blood canals. It is because nicotine gets attached to its receptor proteins in the blood vessel and stays there and thus causes constriction of blood canals.
Also, in the long-term, nicotine damages the lining of blood vessels that leads to deposition of cholesterol in the blood vessels. This may ultimately lead to a heart attack.
Inhibits the release of insulin: Nicotine leads to reduction in the secretion of insulin that is essential in absorption of carbohydrates in the body. Normally, when the glucose level rises because of food intake, insulin comes to the rescue by reducing the glucose levels. In smokers, this is not the case; insulin is released in less quantity. When glucose levels are present in higher levels than required in blood, it may cause harm to the heart and kidneys. May lead to cancer: Nicotine as a causative substance of cancer is debatable. The other chemicals in tobacco like tar containing cyanide, benzene, formaldehyde, etc. are said to cause cancer. These chemicals are released in the body when tar enters because of smoking, over a long period.
Premature aging:
Smokers look older than they actually are. This is because of the effect of nicotine on the production and functioning of antioxidants in the body - responsible for fighting free radicals in the body formed due to environmental pollution, stress, etc. Antioxidants make the skin and other soft tissues look young.
By all accounts, nicotine has destructive effects on every part of your body - be in the short or long-term. Hence, a strict warning indeed to non-smokers is to never experiment with it! Recent research has shown how nicotine acts on the brain. Nicotine activates the circuitry that regulates feelings of pleasure, the so-called reward pathways. Research has shown that nicotine increases the levels of dopamine (a key brain chemical involved in mediating the desire to consume drugs) in the reward circuits. Nicotine's pharmacokinetic properties have been found to enhance its abuse potential. Cigarette smoking produces a rapid distribution of nicotine to the brain, with drug levels peaking within 10 seconds of inhalation. The acute effects of nicotine dissipate within a few minutes, causing the need to continue repeated intake throughout the day. Nicotine's mood-altering effects are different by report: in particular it is both a stimulant and a relaxant. First causing a release of glucose from the liver andepinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal medulla, it causes stimulation. Users report feelings of relaxation, sharpness, calmness, and alertness. By reducing the appetite and raising the metabolism, some smokers may lose weight as a consequence. 8. Dependence (Psychological and Phsycial) Over time, nicotine affects the neurotransmitters in the brain, changing the way certain brain cells work. When one stops using nicotine, the changes remain for a while until the brain can revert back to its normal state. These changes are what cause the withdrawal symptoms characteristic of addiction. In fact, nicotine chemically changes the brain in a similar way to heroin and cocaine, so it’s no wonder so many tobacco users have a hard time quitting! Once the body is free of nicotine, it no longer works in the same way it did when it had a regular supply of nicotine. It can take as long as 4 to 6 weeks for the brain to readjust to life without nicotine as it “re-learns” how to make the chemicals to stimulate the pleasure centers on its own. It is during this transition period that former nicotine users may crave nicotine or feel irritable, anxious, or depressed. But don’t worry. After some time as the brain heals, these feelings and cravings will go away. If you can fight through cravings, get support, think about medications to help, and use your coping strategies, you will succeed. Modern research shows that nicotine acts on the brain to produce a number of effects. Specifically, research examining its addictive nature has been found to show that nicotine activates the mesolimbic pathway ("reward system") – the circuitry within the brain that regulates feelings of pleasure and euphoria. Dopamine is one of the key neurotransmitters actively involved in the brain. Research shows that by increasing the levels of dopamine within the reward circuits in the brain, nicotine acts as a chemical with intense addictive qualities. In many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin. Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine withdrawalcauses downregulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for artificial stimulation. As dopamine regulates the sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors decreases.
To compensate for this compensatory mechanism, the brain in turn upregulates the number of receptors, convoluting its regulatory effects with compensatory mechanisms meant to counteract other compensatory mechanisms. An example is the increase in norepinephrine, one of the successors to dopamine, which inhibit reuptake of the glutamate receptors, in charge of memory and cognition. The net effect is an increase in reward pathway sensitivity, the opposite of other addictive drugs such as cocaine and heroin, which reduce reward pathway sensitivity. This neuronal brain alteration can persist for months after administration ceases. A study found that nicotine exposure in adolescent mice retards the growth of the dopamine system, thus increasing the risk of substance abuse during adolescence. 10. A fooler, which is a falsehood, or something that is not true about your drug. Cigarettes 
Split tobacco 
Snuff Does nicotine have benefits? ANSWER: For quite a few people, nicotine provides the benefits that some people get from caffeine or Ritalin: it helps them focus and be more productive, overcoming attention-deficit-type problems. For some people, nicotine provides relief from stress, anxiety, or panic. For people suffering from some severe mental illnesses, nicotine seems to provide great relief, which probably explains why a very large fraction of psychiatric patients smoke.

Nicotine is also suspected as the reason for the lower incidence of Parkinson's Disease among smokers. And for those who have it, nicotine appears to reduce the associated symptoms. Unfortunately, because nicotine is so stigmatized, there is less information about it than we might want, so we do not have good scientific evidence on all of its possible benefits. Is nicotine a carcinogen? Does nicotine cause disease related to smoking?

ANSWER: The answer to both of these questions, NO. A carcinogen is a substance that is capable of causing cancer in humans. In a traditional cigarette, nicotine is not the cause of cancers. It is the other 4,000 chemicals which are KNOWN carcinogens and known to cause diseases such as: cancer, lung disease, heart disease, and many other disorders. So, it’s not the nicotine that bad for you, it’s the delivery system of the nicotine. A carcinogen is toxic to the body and causes dangerous changes to DNA, usually increasing the rate of cell division in the body. The increase of change from the cell division, also increase the chances for the structure of DNA to change. Sometimes, cell DNA can mutate to cause cancer, especially if the carcinogen in constantly present. ANSWER: Again, nicotine is not a carcinogen. It offers an increase in dopamine levels and is not lethal when used correctly. The average cigarette has about 1 to 1.5 mg of nicotine. It would take over 50 mg of nicotine to be lethal and deadly to a human. When used correctly, nicotine is a very safe drug that can be used frequently.

Nicotine is often been compared to caffeine in coffee. Coffee addicts want coffee for the same buzz and increased brain activity as smokers. Is nicotine lethal to me? Stimulant
Nicotine is what's in tobacco and it's mind altering. it comes from a plant and it's very addictive. it changes your mood making you feel calmer, making your body crave it, more. This is a legal drug that has been abused a lot. It has a lot of negative effects associated with it.
Nicotine is an alkaloid. It is put into tobacco and is very addicting. An addiction to nicotine is one of the hardest addictions to break yourself of.
Nicotine is considered a drug because it effects the chemistry of the brain to produce certain psychological and mental effects. It calms one down, makes one feel more talkative, and allows people to more easily do dull tasks.
Nicotine is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as a Category D drug, meaning it carries some risks during pregnancy. 6. Medicinal use of the drug Nicotine has effects on the:
•central nervous system that depress the appetite,
•constrict blood vessels,
• increase heart rate,
•elevate blood pressure,
• release adrenaline
•speed up respiration
Nicotine in medical products is used to aid in smoking cessation. Using a controlled amount helps reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms when you quit smoking. It works by providing low levels, which may help you to quit smoking by lessening physical signs of withdrawal symptoms.
Nicotine is the primary ingredient in tobacco products.
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